Oglala Sioux Ban E-cigarettes on Pine Ridge Reservation

SIOUX FALLS, S.D. (AP) _ The Oglala Sioux Tribal Council has banned the sale, possession and use of e-cigarettes on the Pine Ridge Reservation amid a nationwide outbreak of vaping-related illnesses.

The tribal council approved the ban last week, the Sioux Falls Argus Leader reported. The maximum penalty for violating the ordinance is a fine of $250 or 30 days in jail.

``The health of our people, including our youth, is of the utmost importance and our tribe has always strived to take a leading role in addressing the health issues of our people,'' the ordinance states.

There have been six confirmed cases of vaping-related illness in South Dakota, according to the South Dakota Department of Health, and over 800 across the country, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, with 12 confirmed deaths in other states.

The CDC says most of the patients reported using products containing THC, the chemical that produces marijuana's high, or both THC-containing products and nicotine-containing products. Some patients reported using only nicotine-containing products. The CDC recommends refraining from using vaping products, particularly those containing THC, while the investigation is ongoing, and against buying these products off the street.

Tribal President Julian Bear Runner heralded the vaping ban as a ``bold action'' and used the occasion to call for further action to regulate all forms of tobacco and nicotine on the reservation.

``In the near future it would empower us to adopt additional legislation related to the cultivation and sale of all forms of tobacco and nicotine, as those industries have profited from our misery since we can remember,'' Bear Runner said in a statement. ``It is to our benefit to authorize only tobacco the Oglala Sioux Tribe has sanctioned.''

The Pine Ridge Reservation has a population of roughly 20,000 in southwestern South Dakota.

Information from: Argus Leader, http://www.argusleader.com

 

Italian Company Asks to Access Land Near Grand Canyon

By FELICIA FONSECA

Associated Press

FLAGSTAFF, Ariz. (AP) _ An Italian real estate company that has long eyed development outside the Grand Canyon's South Rim again is seeking permission to improve forest roads and run utilities to its property in the tiny town of Tusayan.

Stilo Development Group USA and Tusayan asked the U.S. Forest Service this month to grant easements to two pieces of land where Stilo plans to build a resort, an RV park and other lodging and where the town wants housing.

The Forest Service dealt a huge blow to the plans in 2016 when it said the development would ``substantially and adversely'' affect the Grand Canyon and nearby tribal lands and kept it from moving forward.

The latest proposal reflects changes in what had been major concerns _ water use and size. Stilo agreed not to pump water from the ground for commercial use, instead trucking in up to 275,000 gallons (1 million liters) a day. Groundwater still could be used for homes. The company also reduced the size of the commercial development.

``We've learned that water always was, always will be the No. 1 concern, and we'd like to address that upfront this time just to make sure that everybody understands that there is some willingness on the developer to do what's right,'' Tusayan Mayor Craig Sanderson said.

More than 6 million people a year pass through Tusayan on their way to the Grand Canyon. The town of about 600 was incorporated in 2010 as a way for Stilo to develop two pieces of land known as Kotzin and Ten-X, which together are about 360 acres (0.5 square miles). Most of the land in Tusayan is in private hands, and employees largely live in company housing.

The Kaibab National Forest will review the proposal to ensure it aligns with existing laws and regulations. If not, it goes back to the developer. If it checks out, the forest would do an environmental review and open it for public comment.

``We are at the very early stages,'' forest spokeswoman Jackie Banks said.

Tusayan owns 20 acres (8 hectares) on each of the two ranch properties where it wants to build housing. An off-grid development was put on hold earlier this year because the town didn't have approval to build in a flood plain or approval to exceed spending limits to maintain the construction site.

Stilo envisions paving forest roads and running water, sewer, natural gas and telecommunications lines along them to make way for commercial and residential development, with more than 2,500 hotel rooms and about 250 RV spaces. A resort, conference center, spa or dude ranch with lodging could go up on one property. The other property would be a pedestrian-friendly development that lets tourists learn about the region's geology, Native American culture and other things, Stilo spokesman Andy Jacobs said.

The proposal doesn't provide much detail about water use. But Jacobs said the commercial development could be served by water sent on the railroad and trucked in or through an old coal slurry line that served a power plant along the Nevada-Arizona border.

It's also unclear when any development, first proposed by Stilo in the late 1980s, would start.

``I would hope in the next couple of years we can get a shovel in the ground and make it through all these processes. But they're impossible to predict,'' Jacobs said. ``When you look at full build-out, that's into years and decades.''

Hundreds of thousands of people commented on the last application for easements. Sanderson said he'd rather not see one of the roads so close to the school and built so that tourists can bypass much of the town and existing businesses.

Grand Canyon National Park expressed concern about water use, noise, traffic congestion, air quality, and protecting cultural and archaeological sites.

``We will always have concerns about the integrity of park resources. That's our job,'' senior adviser Jan Balsom said.

 

Sometimes Overlooked Chicago River Museum Gets 250K Visitors

CHICAGO (AP) _ A sometimes overlooked Chicago River museum has reached the mark of 250,000 visitors.

A Monday statement from the McCormick Bridgehouse & Chicago River Museum says a suburban Chicago woman, Deb Lawrence, was the weekend visitor to put the facility at that mark.

Friends of the Chicago River opened the museum in a 99-year-old bridge house on the Michigan Avenue bridge in 2006. The mission was to promote a better understanding of the role the river played in city history.

There are exhibits depicting the time when Native Americans and early European settlers both lived along the river. Visitors can also see how Chicago's movable bridges work.

Friends' executive director, Margaret Frisbie, says the museum also shows how a waterway ``once primarily thought of as part of the sewage system'' is again a valuable asset.

 

North Dakota Native Awarded For Efforts To End Hunger

BISMARCK, N.D. (AP) _ A Minnesota college student says she has raised $115,000 in a decade toward ending hunger in North Dakota.

Lauryn Hinckley was 9 years old and living in Bismarck, North Dakota, when she created Stopping Hunger One Backpack at a Time. Hinckley partnered with a United Way backpack program that offers $5 food bags to students in Bismarck and Mandan during the school year.

The Bismarck Tribune reports that volunteer coordinators say 1,300 students received food bags this past year.

Hinckley says around one in five North Dakota children go hungry, despite the state having the highest number of billionaires per capita.

The Sodexo Stop Hunger Foundation awarded Hinckley a $5,000 scholarship and a $5,000 grant in June for her hunger-relief efforts. She's a sophomore at Concordia College in Moorhead, Minnesota.

Information from: Bismarck Tribune, http://www.bismarcktribune.com

 

US Navy to Dub Newest Rescue Ship 'Cherokee Nation'

WASHINGTON, D.C. (AP) _ One of the U.S. Navy's newest rescue ships is being named the ``Cherokee Nation'' to honor the service and contributions the Cherokee people have made to the Navy and Marine Corps.

Secretary of the Navy Richard Spencer announced that Gulf Island Shipyards has been awarded a $64.8 million contract to build the ship, scheduled for completion by 2021.

The Navy says the contract includes an option for six additional vessels, each to be named in honor of a prominent Native American or tribe.

Navy officials say it's the fifth U.S. ship to be named in honor of the Cherokee people and the first since a World War II-era tugboat dubbed the USS Cherokee.

 

Kansas Program Helps Teachers Incorporate Cultural History

TOPEKA, Kan. (AP) _ Two Kansas lawmakers are encouraging teachers to incorporate culturally relevant studies into their lesson plans.

Democratic Reps. John Alcala and Valdenia Winn have spearheaded the Kansas Culturally Relevant Pedagogy Summer Intensive program, which is in its second year, the Topeka-Capital Journal reported.

Alcala helped create the initiative after noticing a lack of representation of various ethnic groups in history text books.

The four-week-long program teaches Kansas educators about culturally relevant pedagogy, including Native American, Chicano/Latino, African American and Asian American studies. Teachers then implement the lessons in their classrooms, and share with program directors what did and didn't work.

Alcala said all teachers who participate will be certified in culturally relevant pedagogy upon completion of the program. Those educators can then share the information with other teachers, he said.

``As far as we know, this model we have created in Kansas is unique,'' said Christina Valdivia-Alcala, founder of the Tonantzin Society who also helped organize the program.

Valdivia-Alcala said the program helps educators teach students about ``important footprints across America that different cultures have made,'' as well as the importance of critical thinking.

Michelle McClaine, an English teacher at the Sumner Academy of Arts and Science school in Kansas City, Kansas, is among the educators participating in the program. She said Mexican American students make up about 60% of her students.

``Having a program like this where you can really ask those uncomfortable questions or get that info that you can be able to show all perspectives of what it means to be Americans, or what that story is of America is very cool and very empowering,'' McClaine said.

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Information from: The Topeka (Kan.) Capital-Journal, http://www.cjonline.com

 

California Governor Calls Native American Treatment Genocide

By ANDREW OXFORD
Associated Press

SACRAMENTO, Calif. (AP) _ Gov. Gavin Newsom formally apologized and pushed the state to reckon with California's dark history of violence, mistreatment and neglect of Native Americans, saying it amounted to genocide.

The Democratic governor met with tribal leaders at the future site of the California Indian Heritage Center, where he also announced the creation of a council to examine the state's role in campaigns of extermination and exploitation.

Throughout history, the California government was key to efforts to remove and kill Native Americans who lived on land that would become part of what is now the world's fifth-largest economy.
``Genocide. No other way to describe it, and that's the way it needs to be described in the history books,'' Newsom said.

Mark Macarro, tribal chairman of the Pechanga Band of Luiseno Indians, said the apology is significant.

``To hear an apology like that today from the head of this state sets a new tone. It does for me, on a personal level,'' said Macarro.

Newsom did not propose any specific changes in policy toward Native American communities, though tribal leaders raised concerns about issues such as managing natural resources, preventing wildfires and addressing the historical trauma of the government's campaigns to wipe out indigenous California residents as well as their culture.

``It was a step into healing,'' said Joseph L. James, chairman of the Yurok Tribe, which has territory near the Northern California coast.

James said that he hopes the governor maintains a close relationship with tribes, adding: ``Actions speak louder than words.''

Newsom is not the first to apologize for the treatment of Native Americans.

Congress tucked an apology into a 2009 military spending bill, acknowledging ``years of official depredations, ill-conceived policies, and the breaking of covenants by the federal government regarding Indian tribes.''

Last year, then-Alaska Gov. Bill Walker issued an apology to the state's indigenous people, listing a series of wrongs.

Other governors have apologized for specific episodes in history, from the killing of Arapaho and Cheyenne people in the Sand Creek Massacre of 1864 to the forced move of Potawatomi people from Indiana to Kansas in 1838 on what has become known as a ``Potawatomi Trail of Death.''
Newsom pointed to California's efforts to remove American Indians as people flooded the state searching for gold in the mid-19th century.

California's first governor, Peter Burnett, declared to legislators in 1851 ``that a war of extermination will continue to be waged between the two races until the Indian race becomes extinct must be expected.''

The Legislature subsequently approved $1.29 million to subsidize militia campaigns against American Indians, Newsom's office said.

The state's objections to several federal treaties with tribes left most American Indians in California landless, said Albert Hurtado, professor emeritus at the University of Oklahoma. ``The actions of the state 150 years ago have ongoing ramifications even today,'' he said.

In using the word genocide to describe California's treatment of Native Americans, Newsom threw the weight of the state government behind a term that is heavy with emotion and still stirs debate, from California to Canada.

``I think it's really important to name it and if you don't, you don't do justice to what actually occurred,'' Newsom said. ``This was not just traditional pioneering spirit and we came into some conflict, as someone suggested. This was something completely organized and systemic.''
The governor's office said the new Truth and Healing Council will more closely explore the historical relationship between the state of California and California Native Americans.

Newsom did not directly call for any changes to the state's history curriculum or commemorations of colonialists and pioneers who have counties, schools and streets named for them across California. But the governor endorsed renaming Columbus Day as Indigenous Peoples Day, as a few states have in recent years.

Like other states in the U.S. West, California has seen renewed debate about its treatment of indigenous people.

Stanford University announced last year it would remove the name of Spanish missionary and Catholic saint Junipero Serra from some parts of campus following criticism over his treatment of Native Americans.

And in recent years, some schools have abandoned what was once a common project in elementary classrooms around California: building models of Spanish missions, which were constructed in real life with the forced labor of Native Americans.

California has the largest proportion of American Indians in the United States. About 723,000 residents identified as American Indian during the 2010 census.

 

Blackfeet Welcome The Return Of Bison To Montana Reservation

By ROB CHANE

Missoulian

BROWNING, Mont. (AP) _ The Blackfeet Indians have waited a long time for bison to return to their homeland. An extra 12 hours wouldn't hurt.

After assembling at 10 a.m. Tuesday on a former cattle ranch just south of Browning, Iinnii Days coordinator Teri Dahle learned the truck hauling a dozen yearling bison from California had broken down in northern Nevada. The yearlings, who left Elk Island National Park in Alberta as unborn calves in a group of 14 bison cows getting donated to the Oakland Zoo last year, were coming to join a growing herd of Blackfeet buffalo and complete a circle of restoration a century in the making.

More on that shortly. The delay gave members of the Iinnii Initiative a beautiful morning to accomplish another goal: sanctifying and renaming, and repurposing the ranch as the centerpiece of the tribe's return to buffalo culture.

Sacred Horn Society members Michael Bruised Head and Peter Weasel Moccasin came down from Calgary, Alberta, to lead a pipe ceremony with Blackfeet Reservation members Tyson Running Wolf and Jesse DeRosier. About 60 people made an open circle around the pipe holders; women arced to the right and men to the left with an opening gap facing the eastern Sweetgrass Hills. After songs and prayers, the four men lit and smoked two pipes, grabbing handfuls of smoke and passing it over their heads, down their bodies and into the dirt where they sat. Then they passed the pipes to the witnesses, who each took four puffs. Children too young for the ceremony received four taps on the shoulders from the pipe stem.

"It's been 130 years since the Sacred Horn Society was back,'' Bruised Head told the Missoulian after the pipes returned. "Now these hills will have a name so you can remember it - so when you drive by, these hills will have more meaning.''

The new name translates as Buffalo Spirit Hills, and drivers to Browning and Glacier National Park will pass it along the highway. Iinnii is a complex word in the Blackfeet language, meaning something that takes away hard things and gives good things in their place, the way in Blackfeet tradition the buffalo saved the starving people by giving them a resource to live off.

Its grasslands stun the imagination. Walk 10 minutes away from the headquarters building and over a few hills, and civilization vanishes. Not even a fence line can be seen for miles of rolling green, stretching seemingly all the way to the Rocky Mountain Front.

And across that prairie, for a lucky watcher, wild bison run with a thunderous noise that can be felt as well as heard. As quickly as they come they vanish in a fold of the earth, and the evening air refills with the creak of several kinds of tiny frogs in the ponds at the bottom of the hills.

A truckload of Iinnii Initiative interns spent an hour seeking glimpses of the herd, until word came that the California newcomers had unexpectedly made up time. Instead of a midnight arrival, they were suddenly at Birch Creek by 9:30 p.m.; just half an hour away.

"This is them, this is them,'' Dahle yelled to the determined crowd of well wishers. Helen Dayle put her 3-year-old son Rustin Running Crane in the truck and headed to the pasture fence. She'd been an intern two years ago when the first Elk Island buffalo shipment came directly to the Blackfeet Reservation. Now about to finish her college degree and become a science teacher, she was determined that her son would take part in the return.

Despite the hour, Rustin was wide-eyed with anticipation. When the pickup hauling the stock trailer finally pulled into the gate at 9:50 p.m. he was standing by his mother waiting for the perfect view.

The actual release took less than 5 minutes. Handlers opened the trailer gates and a dozen bison bolted into the gloom like sailors finally reaching land.

"I saw them running,'' Rustin said. "They were faster than my dog. They were faster than a triceratops.''

Oakland Zoo native wildlife program director Joel Parrott said bringing the Elk Island bison cows to the Bay Area last year has had a huge impact on wildlife enthusiasts. The project allowed the zoo to expand its traditional role of preserving and displaying remarkable animals to actively helping return them to their native environments.

To briefly explain, North America's more than 30 million bison nearly disappeared from the continent in the mid-1800s. They fell to market hunters and settlers determined to change the open Great Plains from a wildlife environment to domesticated ranches and farms, as well as to diseases brought by the imposition of cattle on their range. The transformation also stripped the culture and economy from Native American tribes that had depended on bison hunting for food, materials and spirituality.

Toward the end of the 19th century, conservationists attempted to resuscitate what was left of the species. By then, perhaps a thousand were left, many in groups of a dozen or so collected by ranchers. But one group was brought by Indians from the Blackfeet homeland to the Flathead Reservation, where they became the foundation of the herd on the present-day National Bison Range.

But before that could happen, its Salish Indian owners unsuccessfully tried to sell the herd to the U.S. government. When that failed, the Canadian government stepped in and moved most of the herd to Alberta, founding Elk Island National Park in the process.

That herd has grown beyond its landscape's capacity, so the Canadians occasionally provide culls to suitable new homes. When the Blackfeet learned of the opportunity, they arranged to adopt a new herd. It was delivered in 2016. (See related story online.)

"We've taken the model of the Iinnii to 1 million visitors a year,'' Parrott said. "We helped with the first Elk Island delivery, and that drew enormous attention. The spiritual quality of these bison brought the Indian nation together, and it brought Oakland to Montana."

Blackfeet Agriculture Department Director Ervin Carlson coordinated the official transfer. But, he said, looking at the calves, he realized the circle was far larger than a paperwork arrangement.

"These bison left as calves, and they wanted to return as calves,'' Carlson said. "I've realized that everything we've been doing with these animals happened the way they wanted it to. It's like they put themselves in storage all these years, until we were ready for them to come back.''

After the calves disappeared into the night, Leo Bird told star stories around the campfire long into the night. Just retired as a teacher for 22 years, Bird recalled how his mentors told him to be like a bison, but he didn't understand at first.

Eventually he observed how the bison alone among plains animals faces into oncoming storms, so he started facing his problems that way. He saw how the Blackfeet herd quickly changed the landscape so beaver and swans started returning. And he began building those lessons into his classroom lectures.

"You show the kids the buffalo hair stuck on the fence, and there's seeds in it,'' Bird said. "Birds take that hair for their nests so they can hatch their eggs. The seeds replenish the grass that the bison eats. We planted some in class. As soon as the kids saw the grass growing out of the hair, they understood.''

___

Information from: Missoulian, http://www.missoulian.com

 

BLM Seeks Vandals who Defaced Famous Archaeological Site

WASHINGTON CITY, Utah (AP) _ The Bureau of Land Management is offering a $1,000 reward for information leading to the conviction of vandals who spray-painted graffiti at an important southern Utah archaeological site.

Officials learned through social media that a popular mesa and sacred site to local Paiute Indians in Washington City named Shinob Kibe had been vandalized with the words "Dog Town,'' an offensive nickname for the city. Washington City is about 300 miles (482 kilometers) south of Salt Lake City.

Keith Rigtrup of the BLM says local police investigated the site of the vandalism but were unable to find any leads.

He said the vandals did not paint over Native American hieroglyphs in the area. The mesa is often praised by hikers for its solitude and panoramic views.

 

Tribes, Environmentalists Battle Copper Mine In Arizona

By ANITA SNOW
Associated Press

SONOITA, Ariz. (AP) _ Scenic State Highway 83 gently curves through southeastern Arizona's wine country, past waves of blond grass dotted with orange-tipped ocotillo plants before the dark Santa Rita Mountains loom into view.

The Milepost 44 pullout offers a panorama of the range in the Coronado National Forest where a Canadian firm wants to carve out a massive copper mine near Tucson. The $1.9 billion Rosemont Mine, at a half-mile deep and a mile wide, would sprawl across federal, state and private land, leaving a waste pile the height of skyscraper.

Native American tribes and environmental groups have sued to stop Hudbay Minerals Inc. of Toronto, arguing its mine could desecrate sacred, ancestral lands and dry up wells and waterways while ravaging habitat for endangered jaguar and other species. Last week, they asked a federal judge to prevent the project from proceeding until the lawsuits are decided.

``I pray to our Creator every morning that things will work out,'' said Austin Nunez, chairman of the Tohono O'odham's San Xavier District, a piece of tribal land just south of Tucson. ``Our ancestors' remains are there, along with archaeological sites, including a ball court. We cannot risk any further harm to our ancestral heritage.''

The Tucson and state chambers of commerce are Rosemont cheerleaders, noting the project will immediately create 500 jobs and pour $16 billion into the local economy over 20 years.

The fight comes amid a larger battle across the West over using public lands for mining.

The Trump administration in late 2017 slashed about 85% of Utah's Bear Ears National Monument to allow for mining claims. New Mexico tribal leaders have pressured U.S. officials to ban oil and gas exploration near the remnants of an ancient Pueblo civilization at Chaco Culture National Historical Park. And conservationists fret over plans to reopen a gold mine in California's Castle Mountains National Monument, home to ancient rock art and a Joshua tree forest.

``You could go to virtually every state and find a push by big corporations to grab resources before it's too late,'' said Richard White, a historian of the American West at Stanford University. ``It's a resurrection of these extractive industries that were so much a part of the Old West.''

Arizona produces about two-thirds of U.S. copper for wiring and other electronics, generating about $5.38 billion in 2017, according to the Arizona Mining Association. ``Mining in Arizona represents 60,000 jobs,'' said Amber Smith, president and CEO of the Tucson Metro Chamber of Commerce. She is confident Hudbay will mitigate any potential problems by building extra roadways and employing technology to recycle water used in the mining process.

Arizona Chamber of Commerce and Industry spokesman Garrick Taylor said Rosemont would be among the biggest construction projects in Arizona history. ``Its impacts will be measured in the billions of dollars,'' he said.

Responding to questions in writing, Hudbay told The Associated Press that delaying the project would result in ``significant financial costs'' and ``we're proposing in the short term to move forward on aspects that don't fall under the litigation.''

The company said the current project was the result of a dozen years of review and ``it's designed intelligently and in accordance with public and policy priorities.'' It has told Tucson officials the mine would not harm water quality or affect supplies.

Still, environmentalists worry about the impacts on the Santa Rita Mountains, where white-tailed deer and black bear, bobcats and the occasional cougar roam among the Apache pines and Douglas firs. Numerous kinds of hummingbirds and woodland warblers fly through Madera Canyon, among the world's premier bird-watching spots.

Randy Serraglio, a conservation advocate with the Tucson-based Center for Biological Diversity, predicted ore trucks would rumble down a scenic highway built in 1927 that stretches some 50 miles (80 kilometers) from Interstate 10 to the tourist hotspot of Sonoita.

``It's going to look like a nuclear bomb was set off,'' he said.

Winery owner Todd Bostock worries Rosemont could injure a tourism industry that includes boutique lodging focused on wine and the region's natural beauty.

``The mine will have a direct, negative and permanent impact on our business,'' said Bostock, whose Dos Cabezas winery annually produces some 5,000 cases of dry red, rose and white wine. ``They are gambling with our investment and our livelihood.''

Rosemont detractors also point to the yawning Lavender Pit, a former open pit copper mine outside Bisbee that still scars the landscape 45 years after ending operations.

Serraglio's group, along with Save the Scenic Santa Ritas, the Arizona Mining Reform Coalition and the Arizona Grand Canyon Chapter of the Sierra Club this year sued to stop Rosemont, as did the Tohono O'odham Nation, the Pascua Yaqui Tribe and the Hopi Tribe.

The environmental law firm Earthjustice filed the recent request for an injunction to stop Hudbay from revving up its bulldozers. U.S. District Court Judge James A. Soto has said he hopes to rule on the first three suits by summer's end before tackling two more recent ones filed over a Clean Water Act permit granted by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and a mine operations plan approved by the U.S. Forest Service.

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Follow Anita Snow: https://twitter.com/asnowreports

 

Exhibit On Local Native Americans Opens At Museum

By HADLEY BARNDOLLAR
The Portsmouth Herald

PORTSMOUTH, N.H. (AP) _ As some states and communities have slowly begun to acknowledge their often purposeful erasure of Native Americans from the dominant narrative, the voices, cultures and histories of the Abenaki and Wabanaki peoples were recently given a rightful home in the oldest ``neighborhood'' of New Hampshire settled by Europeans.

``People of the Dawnland,'' an exhibit at the Jones House Family Discover Center in the 1600s Puddle Dock neighborhood, opens this month. The neighborhood, now known far and wide as Strawbery Banke Museum, did in fact have remnants of indigenous people, such as pottery, projectile points and tent holes, discovered by archaeologists, but the museum has largely focused its efforts on the colonial aspects of the early settlement.

But the narrative is changing, after a long-range interpretive planning effort targeted elevating diverse voices in their collections as a goal for the museum. Alix Martin, museum archaeologist and non-Native professor of Native Studies in the anthropology department at the University of New Hampshire, said the American Alliance of Museums issued a ``trend watch'' for the year, which included a large section about ``decolonizing museums,'' by not focusing solely on colonial and Anglo-American narratives.

The archaeological discoveries showed indigenous people have been in the region for more than 12,000 years.

The rehabilitation of two Strawbery Banke houses over the last year resulted in some exhibit movement, and a room in the Jones House arose as a proper opportunity to debut the Native American-focused display, which is interactive, incorporating hands-on activities, such as games, art and storytelling.

The exhibit was organized by the museum's education department in collaboration with Martin and Anne Jennison, a Strawbery Banke interpreter of European and Abenaki ancestry, known for her traditional Northeast Native American storytelling. Input for the exhibit was provided by the state Commission on Native American Affairs, tribes, the Berwick, Maine, Historical Society, and the Indigenous New Hampshire Collaborative Collective at UNH.

Jennison said she asked her parents for permission to publicly identify as a Native person before she began her storytelling endeavors 30 years ago. ``If you could identify as white or black, it was better than identifying as Native,'' Jennison said. ``It was safer. It's only very recent in the history of New England that it's OK. There is a lot of scholarship about how the New England Native peoples have been hiding in plain sight.''

Detailed in a documentary last year titled ``Dawnland,'' in Maine, government agents systematically forced Native American children from their homes and placed them with white families. As recently as the 1970s, one in four Native children nationwide were living in non-Native foster care, adoptive homes or at boarding schools. The separation caused emotional and physical harm as adults attempted to erase their cultural identity.

Jennison is also a Native craftswoman, and the exhibit features her birch bark creations, corn husk dolls and bead work. A library for browsing showcases Native literature of all kinds. Various archaeological artifacts are on display, and interpretative wall panels detail Native history on the Seacoast and across New Hampshire. There is also a formal land acknowledgement, signifying Abenaki land underfoot.

The exhibit features donations from personal collections, and an Abenaki artist allowed her work to be shown on the walls. Native foodways are depicted by Indian corn, beans and squash. Jennison said the presentation draws from ``everyone's bag of tools.''

``People were curious, `Why is your history starting only with the 1600s?''' Martin said. ``I think this is a great opportunity to go way farther back and start with the very first people who lived here. And then connect these people and their connection to this landscape and their traditions to today. Native people were and are an important part of the Portsmouth and Puddle Dock community.''

Jennison grew up in Portsmouth, and had a goal that after she retired from teaching, she would approach Strawbery Banke about expanding its focus on Native American history. Jennison's master's work at UNH focused largely on the 1713 Treaty of Portsmouth, which represented an important agreement between the ``Eastern Indians'' and the English Royal government. The treaty shows pictograph signatures of tribal delegates attending the peace conference, including the Abenaki sachem, Bomoseen.

When English colonists began to arrive in the Northeast in the 1600s, bringing foreign diseases, animals and plants onto Abenaki homeland, violent conflicts across the region resulted in the deaths of Native people, and the removal of others from their homeland. But many Abenaki people remained and adapted, showing strength and resilience.

Martin said she is confident the exhibit reflects what Native Americans want to communicate, thanks to the widespread input they received in curating it. She also noted the Native population in New Hampshire is actually growing, because of new identification options offered by the Census Bureau.

``Allowing people to identify themselves as Native has brought so many more people in touch with their heritage,'' Martin said. ``For a long time it was a strategy thing, to not be allowed to identify as Native. A lot of people were erased from census records, so it's really gratifying to see people reconnecting with it. I would not be surprised if the number in New Hampshire doubled through 2020.''

Today, there are more than 7,000 Native Americans and Alaska Natives living in New Hampshire.

Martin said at UNH, it wasn't until the Indigenous New Hampshire Collaborative Collective began to gain momentum that some faculty members began to openly identify as of indigenous descent. As a non-Native person teaching Native studies, Martin noted she tries to be extremely conscious ``of me not being the voice on Native people.''

Lawrence J. Yerdon, president and CEO of Strawbery Banke, said it has ``long been a goal of the museum to expand its interpretation of the Abenaki people.''

``Depending on how things go, it's been indicated it could grow from here,'' Jennison said. ``What we've got here is a really good beginning.''

It's estimated approximately 95,000 people visit Strawbery Banke over the course of one year.

This week, Maine officially replaced Columbus Day with Indigenous Peoples' Day, with the signature of Gov. Janet Mills. According to the New York Times, at least six states and 130 cities and towns have now renamed the holiday, which as Columbus Day, has been a federal holiday since 1934. Italian explorer Christopher Columbus reportedly committed atrocities against Native people, and many feel the holiday glorifies him over those who inhabited the land prior.

In New Hampshire, the future of the holiday isn't so certain. In February, legislators put off deciding whether Columbus Day would be renamed. House Bill 221 remains stalled. The town of Durham is believed to be the first in the state to vote in favor of the switch to Indigenous Peoples' Day.

``People of the Dawnland'' is open seven days a week, from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m., and is included in regular museum admission.

 

Tribal College in North Dakota to End Nursing Program

BISMARCK, N.D. (AP) _ A Native American college in North Dakota is preparing to close its nursing program this month.

The United Tribes Technical College's nursing program will end May 10, the Bismarck Tribune reported.

The college decided in December to voluntarily discontinue the program after recent resignations put it out of compliance with North Dakota Board of Nursing standards. The college saw departures from the program's administrator and three faculty members.

The college contracted with temporary staff to allow eight students in the program to complete their education in order to graduate this month, said Stacey Pfenning, the board's executive director. Officials also alerted current and prospective students last year that the program would be discontinued.

The number of students enrolled in the college's nursing program had been declining in recent years, according to the state board's annual report.

The United Tribes Technical College had 22 students enrolled in its nursing program in the 2017-2018 school year, compared to 34 in 2012-2013.

College officials attributed the decrease to the creation of two-year registered nursing programs in the area. United Tribes Technical College is the third tribal college in North Dakota to close its nursing program in recent years, the school stated.

Leander McDonald, the college's president, said ``knowing that students would have other options in the community helped in making the decision.''

___

Information from: Bismarck Tribune, http://www.bismarcktribune.com

 

Arizona History Project Displays Photos of Four Corners Region

PHOENIX (AP) _ A collection of photos taken in the Four Corners region by a prominent Arizona ranching family during the late 19th and early 20th centuries is being called a snapshot of history.

The State of Arizona Research Library says the selection of images from the Wetherill family's collection can be viewed online at http://azmemory.azlibrary.gov/digital/collection/weth as part of the Arizona Memory Project.

Curatorial Specialist Jannelle Weakly says the Wetherills were ranchers, traders, explorers, and amateur archaeologists who participated in the discovery, excavation, research and preservation of significant sites in the Four Corners area.

The collection includes photos from John Wetherill's travels to Rainbow Bridge, Monument Valley, and Mesa Verde. The photographs also include ones Wetherill took of American Indians, including notable Navajo leaders Hosteen Luca and Wolfkiller.

 

Cherokee Tribal Writing Inside Alabama Cave Finally Decoded

FORT PAYNE, Ala. (AP) _ Archaeologists and Cherokee scholars have collaborated to interpret tribal inscriptions written in an Alabama cave.

The inscriptions inside Manitou Cave near Fort Payne are evidence of the tribe's syllabary, which the Cherokee scholar Sequoyah developed using symbols for each sound. It was formally adopted as the tribe's official written language in 1825.

The study of the inscriptions was published in the April issue of Antiquity, an international archaeological journal. Experts say they describe secluded ceremonial activities in the years before the Cherokee were forcibly removed from the region along the Trail of Tears.

One inscription describes a particular game similar to lacrosse in 1828 when players entered the cave before the games and during intermission. Another was ``written backwards, as if addressing readers inside the rock itself.''

 

Native American Women Set Record in Rapid City Election

By MATTHEW GUERRY
Rapid City Journal

RAPID CITY, S.D. (AP) _ An unprecedented number of Native American women are running for office in the Rapid City municipal election in June.

Saying that the city council ought to better reflect the people it represents, four of them officially announced their candidacy in front of the city administration in downtown Rapid City.

``I am running because I think everyone deserves a voice at the table,'' said Cante Heart, who is running for a council seat in Ward 5.

With Rosebud Sioux member Lance Lehmann running in Ward 4, Native Americans are represented in the five city elections and the mayor's race, the Rapid City Journal reported.

Natalie Stites Means, a member of the Cheyenne River Sioux tribe, is challenging two-term Mayor Steve Allender. The winner will be the first mayor to serve a four-year term.

Stites Means identified access to social assistance and criminal justice as two of the issues important to her. She said that the city council's recent adoption of an ordinance penalizing panhandling was what drove her to file for candidacy several days ago.

The council, she said, failed to recognize that the ordinance unfairly targeted Native Americans.

``I thought that was really paternalistic and really reflected a lack of sophistication on their part in terms of understanding what cultural differences are, what diversity is and what racism is,'' she said.

One of the two three-year seats in each of the city's five wards are up for grabs on June 4 as well.

Stephanie Savoy, a Rural America Initiatives employee and member of the Crow Creek Sioux Tribe, will be running for the seat in Ward 3 to replace incumbent Jason Salamun, who is not seeking reelection. Jeff Bailie, Brittany Richman and Gregory Strommen also are running to represent Ward 3.

Two of the five Native American women running are the sole challengers of two council incumbents seeking reelection.

In Ward 1, Terra Houska is running against Lisa Modrick, who was first elected to the council in 2016. Heart, of the Rosebud Sioux Tribe, is running against Darla Drew, first elected in 2014, in Ward 5.

Ramona Herrington, of the Oglala Sioux, is facing off against Bill Evans in Ward 2 to replace Steve Laurenti, who also is not seeking reelection.

In Ward 4, council President Amanda Scott, who has served on the council since 2012 and chairs several committees, is being challenged by Lehmann and Tim Johnson.

Council members Becky Drury, Ritchie Nordstrom, Chad Lewis, John Roberts and Laura Armstrong each have one year remaining in their terms.

The candidates said that while minority representation in city hall is important, the issues they see do not only affect Native Americans.

``We are prepared and I am prepared as a candidate to address the needs of all,'' Stites Means said. ``I am not interested in being the mayor of Native American Rapid City. I am interested in being the mayor of this city.''

___

Information from: Rapid City Journal, http://www.rapidcityjournal.com

 

Navajo Technical University to Honor New Mexico Sen. Pinto

CROWNPOINT, N.M. (AP) _ New Mexico Sen. John Pinto, one of the longest-serving Native American legislators in U.S. history, is set to be recognized with an honorary degree.

The Gallup Independent reports Navajo Technical University is scheduled to celebrate the 94-year-old Pinto with an Honorary Degree of Doctor of Public Service at the university's May 17 commencement.

The Lupton, Arizona-born Pinto has served in the New Mexico Senate since 1977.

Navajo Technical University president Elmer Guy says the Democrat has been a strong advocate for the Navajo Nation and the university.

Pinto served in World War II as a Navajo Code Talker.

___

Information from: Gallup Independent, http://www.gallupindependent.com

 

Arizona Residents Accused of Selling Fake Native Jewelry

PHOENIX (AP) _ Three Arizona residents are among seven people charged with fraudulently selling jewelry imported from the Philippines as authentic Native American-made items.

A federal grand jury in Phoenix returned a 38-count indictment that alleges none of these jewelry items were indelibly marked with the country of origin as required by customs law.

They say 70-year-old Richard Dennis Nisbet of Peoria and his 31-year-old daughter Laura Marye Lott conspired with others to design and manufacture the jewelry in the Philippines and import it to the United States.

Lott then allegedly delivered the jewelry to retail stores in Arizona, Texas and other states and collected payments.

Prosecutors say 43-year-old Scottsdale jewelry store owner Waleed Sarrar conspired with Nisbet, Lott and others to pass off imitation jewelry manufactured abroad as authentic Native American items.

 

Scientists Observe Low Sea Ice in Bering Sea off Alaska

By DAN JOLING
Associated Press

ANCHORAGE, Alaska (AP) _ Open water has replaced sea ice in much of the Bering Sea off Alaska's west coast, leaving villages vulnerable to powerful winter storms and adding challenges to Alaska Native hunters seeking marine mammals, an expert said Monday.

Rick Thoman of the Alaska Center for Climate Assessment & Policy at the University of Alaska Fairbanks said that winter storms over five weeks obliterated thin ice that had formed since December.

Wind blew ice to Russian beaches in the west and to the south side of Norton Sound south of Nome but left open water all the way to Chukchi Sea north of the Bering Strait.

``You can take your sailboat from Dillingham to Diomede today,'' he said.

Sea ice historically covers much of the Bering Sea throughout the winter with maximum coverage through March. Kotzebue Sound, a great bay northeast of the Bering Strait, already has open water, an occurrence normally seen in June.

It's the second consecutive winter for low sea ice. Last year, it was low all season. This winter, a warm November was followed by a cold December and January, Thoman said.

``Then the weather pattern changed and the ice has just collapsed,'' he said. He suspects that heat in the ocean played a factor.

Phyllis Stabenow, a physical oceanographer at the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, said Monday that storms played a large role in the extreme low ice.

Winds from November to April typically blow out of the north or northwest and are cold, driving ice southward, she said by email. The year, warm winds in a series of storms blew out of the southwest in mid-January and especially February.

``These storms broke the ice up and pushed it north. Also some of the ice melted. So the ice is now similar in extent to what it was last year at this time and last year had the lowest maximum ice extent ever observed,'' she said.

Thoman and Stabenow did not label the unusual ice event as climate change. The Bering Sea has been warm for several years, Thoman said. The ice loss can be attributed to a warm ocean and combination of an unusual but not unprecedented weather pattern.

However, some events are unlikely to occur without climate change, he said.

Stabenow said no single event can be attributed to climate change.

``What can be said is that some climate models predict more southerly winds, which will reduce ice extent,'' she said. ``Also, an increase in southerly winds in the northern Bering Sea during the fall and winter has been observed since 2016.''

Sea ice is an important feature of the ecosystem. Its absence has implications above and below the ocean surface.

Coastal communities historically could rely on a barrier of sea ice after Labor Day to protect them from the pounding of fierce winter storms. Without an ice cover, waves erode beaches and sometimes flood villages, Thoman said.

Residents of coastal villages traditionally hunt and butcher marine mammals such as walruses and seals when the animals ``haul out'' on ice. Residents of St. Lawrence Island last year had to try to hunt in open water far from shore, Thoman said.

``Now instead of going out one mile, you have to go out 50. There's that increased cost,'' Thoman said. ``It's much more difficult to butcher an animal the size of a walrus in a boat as opposed to on ice. Much greater chance of injury to the people. Much greater chance of losing the animal altogether.''

Sea ice historically has formed a ``cold pool'' in the central Bering Sea, a barrier of cold water that sets the structure for fish. The cold pool acts as a thermal wall, keeping valuable commercial fish such walleye pollock and Pacific cod, in the southern and central Bering Sea.

In the absence of sea ice last year, federal fish biologists conducting surveys found that a 2018 cold pool had not formed and that southern species had migrated north in far greater numbers.

 

Ballpark Mustard Maker Drops Indians' Chief Wahoo Logo

CLEVELAND (AP) _ The maker of Cleveland's ballpark mustard is removing the Chief Wahoo logo from its branding and packaging to maintain longstanding ties with the Cleveland Indians baseball team.

Cleveland.com reports the Indians have told official partners like Bertman Foods Co., the maker of Bertman Original Ballpark Mustard, those relationships can't continue unless they stop using Chief Wahoo. The caricature is widely seen as racist and offensive to Native Americans.

The Indians will stop using Chief Wahoo on player uniforms starting this season. The club had been phasing out the logo for years and struck an agreement with Major League Baseball last year to discontinue its use altogether.

The team will continue to sell a few Chief Wahoo items at team shops to retain its trademark.

___

Information from: cleveland.com, http://www.cleveland.com

 

Plaque That Calls Native Americans 'Savage Enemies' Removed

YARMOUTH, Maine (AP) _ A Maine town has removed a 90-year-old cemetery plaque that referred to Native Americans as ``savage enemies.''

Yarmouth Town Manager Nat Tupper says the historical marker was brought to his attention by residents who were preparing to make a presentation of the documentary ``Dawnland'' at the local library.

Tupper says the residents felt the marker was inconsistent with today's values, and it was removed from the cemetery Feb. 7.

Katie Worthing of the Yarmouth Historical Society says the sign will be archived for educational purposes.

Maria Girouard with a Wabanaki advocacy group says there are other signs with similar language around the state.

Girouard says that type of signage perpetuates stereotypes of violence, and she hopes other places will be inspired to remove it.

 

Bill Would Rename Columbus Day to Indigenous Peoples Day

AUGUSTA, Maine (AP) _ Maine lawmakers are set to consider trading the Columbus Day holiday for a tribute to Native Americans.

The Legislature's State and Local Government Committee is set to hold a hearing on the bill Monday.

Democratic Rep. Benjamin Collings of Portland sponsored the bill that renames the state holiday celebrated on the second Monday in October to Indigenous Peoples Day.

At least five states have done away with celebrating the explorer Christopher Columbus in deference to Native Americans, though the federal Columbus holiday remains in place. A similar bill recently passed a legislative committee in New Mexico.

Several Maine communities have adopted Indigenous Peoples Day, including Bangor and Portland.

Penobscot Nation Tribal Ambassador Maulian Dana praised municipalities for taking such steps at Democratic Gov. Janet Mills' inauguration.

 

New Mexico Seeks Student Assessments that Reflect Culture

SANTA FE, N.M. (AP) _ The state's newly appointed education secretary says the next version of statewide tests for student academic performance should reflect the unique cultures of a heavily Hispanic and Native American state.

New Mexico Public Education Secretary Karen Trujillo told reporters Friday that a clear picture should emerge in August of the new statewide assessments for students and that the exams need to be culturally relevant.

In one of her first actions as governor, Democrat Michelle Lujan Grisham did away with student assessments developed by the Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers that she pilloried as high-pressure and counterproductive. Students will take an abbreviated assessment this spring as new exams are developed.

Trujillo says assessments that include unfamiliar terms may not fully reflect a child's knowledge.

 

Sports Anglers Concerned About New Lake Superior Agreement

SUPERIOR, Wis. (AP) _ Some sports anglers have expressed frustration after Wisconsin officials and two tribes settled a new agreement for managing Lake Superior's fishery.

Wisconsin Public Radio reports that anglers say they were left out of the state's negotiations with the Red Cliff and Bad River Bands of Lake Superior Chippewa. The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources and the tribes approved the Lake Superior Fishing Agreement last month, saying the new terms will protect the Lake Superior fishery.

Apostle Islands Sports Fishermen's Association President Scott Bretting says the new agreement was negotiated behind closed doors. They're concerned that the agreement puts more pressure on the fishery, particularly a new commercial whitefish season in October.

DNR official Scott Loomans says they'll continually evaluate the new whitefish season. Loomans says the department doesn't believe the season will negatively impact the fishery.

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Information from: Wisconsin Public Radio, http://www.wpr.org

 

Maine Lawmakers to Consider Whether to Allow Sports Gambling

AUGUSTA, Maine (AP) _ Maine lawmakers are poised to debate whether to allow Mainers to legally place bets sports games.

The Portland Press Herald reports that lawmakers could consider bills including allowing sports betting by Maine casinos or the state's American Indian tribes.

Rhode Island is one of eight states the allow sports betting, and the only New England state to do so.

The newspaper reports that at least 30 other states have such bills in the works. A 2018 U.S. Supreme Court ruling overturned federal law prohibiting states from legalizing sports betting.

Few details of the Maine bills are available yet. Democratic Senate President Troy Jackson wants to prohibit gambling on Maine collegiate, minor league and high school teams.

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Information from: Portland Press Herald, http://www.pressherald.com

 

Partnership Aims to Help New Mexico Tribe Monitor its Land

ALBUQUERQUE, N.M. (AP) _ A Native American community in northern New Mexico will soon get help from solar-powered drones to monitor its vast land holdings from above.

Under a new partnership with Santa Fe-based Wildflower International, unmanned aerial systems made by Albuquerque-based Silent Falcon UAS Technologies will assist Pojoaque Pueblo in managing its roaming bison herd, mapping cultural sites and improving fire control and search-and-rescue efforts.

The Albuquerque Journal reports that the flights will begin this month.

The project will provide an opportunity for Wildflower to train its newly-formed UAS flight team. It's a new business for Wildflower, a 27-year-old information technology firm that Kimberly deCastro built into a company with more than 83 employees.

Since launching in 1991, Wildflower has relied almost exclusively on federal contracts for information technology products and services to grow its business. But given the rise of the cloud and plummeting costs for IT systems and services, profit margins are shrinking and the company is pivoting to the rapidly growing market for drone services.

``UAS operations are opening a lot more doors for us,'' deCastro said. ``It's an emerging market that we're investing heavily in.''

Wildflower partnered in 2018 with Silent Falcon, which equips its solar-powered drones with infrared cameras and other sensors for real-time surveillance and imaging. It sells the system to public and private entities worldwide, but it's now moving into service-based contracts to operate its system for customers.

It wants to break into federal contracting, said Silent Falcon CEO John Brown.

Wildflower already scored its first UAS contract to provide services with Silent Falcon drones to the U.S. Homeland Security Department starting in April. To do that, Wildflower's new six-member flight team needs to train in real-world terrain, which the Pojoaque partnership provides.

``We need to be accurate and safe and deliver the right data set to our customers,'' deCastro said. ``We need experience so when we fly for agencies it looks like the Air Force just showed up.''

Wildflower purchased two Silent Falcons, which will fly at Pojoaque.

In addition to its monitoring services, the company also will train pueblo members for UAS careers, something particularly appealing to Pojoaque Gov. Joseph Talachy.

``To be successful tomorrow, the members of the pueblo need to gain the skills for the jobs of tomorrow,'' Talachy said in a statement. ``There seems to be no doubt that unmanned aircraft is a technology that has huge growth potential.''

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Information from: Albuquerque Journal, http://www.abqjournal.com

 

Wisconsin Management Area Approved to Combat Deer Disease

MADISON, Wis. (AP) _ A task force has established new restrictions on Native American tribal members' transporting or disposing of deer carcasses within certain parts of Wisconsin due to the risk of spreading chronic wasting disease.

The Voigt Intertribal Task Force approved a tribal management area in parts of Oneida, Lincoln and Langlade counties to safeguard deer from being exposed to the fatal neurological disease, Wisconsin Public Radio reported. The task force is comprised of members from tribes in Michigan, Minnesota and Wisconsin and recommends policies regarding tribal rights to hunt, fish and gather off-reservation.

The management area sets boundaries which tribal members will be prohibited from moving deer into and beyond because of an increased likelihood for a deer to be infected with chronic wasting disease. The new policy also prohibits tribal members from disposing of any deer carcass within the zone, except at the site of the kill, a licensed landfill or a designated collection location.

CWD is spread through deer-to-deer contact and fatally attacks an infected animal's nervous system.

The new rules come in response to two incidents this year in which deer tested positive for the disease near tribal communities in Lincoln and Oneida counties, according to Travis Bartnick, a wildlife biologist for the Great Lakes Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission.

The move also comes after Wisconsin lawmakers in October rejected Gov. Scott Walker's emergency rule to limit hunters from moving deer carcasses from counties affected by the disease.

The tribal members ``want to do everything in their power to protect the wild whitetail deer and elk herd,'' Bartnick said. ``Even though they're such a minority of the population of deer hunters out there, they want to be able to set this example of how to do things in the right way.''

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Information from: Wisconsin Public Radio, http://www.wpr.org

 

New Mexico Rural Water Projects Get $35M Federal Boost

ALBUQUERQUE, N.M. (AP) _ Efforts to build water and wastewater systems and improve existing infrastructure in a few communities in rural New Mexico will see a $35 million infusion of federal funding.

Members of New Mexico's congressional delegation announced the funding this week from U.S. Department of Agriculture Rural Development.

The money comes in the form of low-interest loans and grants and is set aside for tribes, colonias and rural communities with 10,000 or fewer residents.

Projects in Garfield, Socorro and San Miguel County are among the recipients.

The largest share will go to the Navajo Tribal Utility Authority in San Juan County to build a new wastewater delivery and treatment plant. The old system exceeded federal standards by releasing high rates of effluent into the San Juan River.

BISMARCK, N.D. (AP) _ A Native American college in North Dakota is preparing to close its nursing program this month.

The United Tribes Technical College's nursing program will end May 10, the Bismarck Tribune reported.

The college decided in December to voluntarily discontinue the program after recent resignations put it out of compliance with North Dakota Board of Nursing standards. The college saw departures from the program's administrator and three faculty members.

The college contracted with temporary staff to allow eight students in the program to complete their education in order to graduate this month, said Stacey Pfenning, the board's executive director. Officials also alerted current and prospective students last year that the program would be discontinued.

The number of students enrolled in the college's nursing program had been declining in recent years, according to the state board's annual report.

The United Tribes Technical College had 22 students enrolled in its nursing program in the 2017-2018 school year, compared to 34 in 2012-2013.

College officials attributed the decrease to the creation of two-year registered nursing programs in the area. United Tribes Technical College is the third tribal college in North Dakota to close its nursing program in recent years, the school stated.

Leander McDonald, the college's president, said ``knowing that students would have other options in the community helped in making the decision.''

___

Information from: Bismarck Tribune, http://www.bismarcktribune.com

 

Arizona History Project Displays Photos of Four Corners Region

PHOENIX (AP) _ A collection of photos taken in the Four Corners region by a prominent Arizona ranching family during the late 19th and early 20th centuries is being called a snapshot of history.

The State of Arizona Research Library says the selection of images from the Wetherill family's collection can be viewed online at http://azmemory.azlibrary.gov/digital/collection/weth as part of the Arizona Memory Project.

Curatorial Specialist Jannelle Weakly says the Wetherills were ranchers, traders, explorers, and amateur archaeologists who participated in the discovery, excavation, research and preservation of significant sites in the Four Corners area.

The collection includes photos from John Wetherill's travels to Rainbow Bridge, Monument Valley, and Mesa Verde. The photographs also include ones Wetherill took of American Indians, including notable Navajo leaders Hosteen Luca and Wolfkiller.

 

Cherokee Tribal Writing Inside Alabama Cave Finally Decoded

FORT PAYNE, Ala. (AP) _ Archaeologists and Cherokee scholars have collaborated to interpret tribal inscriptions written in an Alabama cave.

The inscriptions inside Manitou Cave near Fort Payne are evidence of the tribe's syllabary, which the Cherokee scholar Sequoyah developed using symbols for each sound. It was formally adopted as the tribe's official written language in 1825.

The study of the inscriptions was published in the April issue of Antiquity, an international archaeological journal. Experts say they describe secluded ceremonial activities in the years before the Cherokee were forcibly removed from the region along the Trail of Tears.

One inscription describes a particular game similar to lacrosse in 1828 when players entered the cave before the games and during intermission. Another was ``written backwards, as if addressing readers inside the rock itself.''

 

Native American Women Set Record in Rapid City Election

By MATTHEW GUERRY
Rapid City Journal

RAPID CITY, S.D. (AP) _ An unprecedented number of Native American women are running for office in the Rapid City municipal election in June.

Saying that the city council ought to better reflect the people it represents, four of them officially announced their candidacy in front of the city administration in downtown Rapid City.

``I am running because I think everyone deserves a voice at the table,'' said Cante Heart, who is running for a council seat in Ward 5.

With Rosebud Sioux member Lance Lehmann running in Ward 4, Native Americans are represented in the five city elections and the mayor's race, the Rapid City Journal reported.

Natalie Stites Means, a member of the Cheyenne River Sioux tribe, is challenging two-term Mayor Steve Allender. The winner will be the first mayor to serve a four-year term.

Stites Means identified access to social assistance and criminal justice as two of the issues important to her. She said that the city council's recent adoption of an ordinance penalizing panhandling was what drove her to file for candidacy several days ago.

The council, she said, failed to recognize that the ordinance unfairly targeted Native Americans.

``I thought that was really paternalistic and really reflected a lack of sophistication on their part in terms of understanding what cultural differences are, what diversity is and what racism is,'' she said.

One of the two three-year seats in each of the city's five wards are up for grabs on June 4 as well.

Stephanie Savoy, a Rural America Initiatives employee and member of the Crow Creek Sioux Tribe, will be running for the seat in Ward 3 to replace incumbent Jason Salamun, who is not seeking reelection. Jeff Bailie, Brittany Richman and Gregory Strommen also are running to represent Ward 3.

Two of the five Native American women running are the sole challengers of two council incumbents seeking reelection.

In Ward 1, Terra Houska is running against Lisa Modrick, who was first elected to the council in 2016. Heart, of the Rosebud Sioux Tribe, is running against Darla Drew, first elected in 2014, in Ward 5.

Ramona Herrington, of the Oglala Sioux, is facing off against Bill Evans in Ward 2 to replace Steve Laurenti, who also is not seeking reelection.

In Ward 4, council President Amanda Scott, who has served on the council since 2012 and chairs several committees, is being challenged by Lehmann and Tim Johnson.

Council members Becky Drury, Ritchie Nordstrom, Chad Lewis, John Roberts and Laura Armstrong each have one year remaining in their terms.

The candidates said that while minority representation in city hall is important, the issues they see do not only affect Native Americans.

``We are prepared and I am prepared as a candidate to address the needs of all,'' Stites Means said. ``I am not interested in being the mayor of Native American Rapid City. I am interested in being the mayor of this city.''

___

Information from: Rapid City Journal, http://www.rapidcityjournal.com

 

Navajo Technical University to Honor New Mexico Sen. Pinto

CROWNPOINT, N.M. (AP) _ New Mexico Sen. John Pinto, one of the longest-serving Native American legislators in U.S. history, is set to be recognized with an honorary degree.

The Gallup Independent reports Navajo Technical University is scheduled to celebrate the 94-year-old Pinto with an Honorary Degree of Doctor of Public Service at the university's May 17 commencement.

The Lupton, Arizona-born Pinto has served in the New Mexico Senate since 1977.

Navajo Technical University president Elmer Guy says the Democrat has been a strong advocate for the Navajo Nation and the university.

Pinto served in World War II as a Navajo Code Talker.

___

Information from: Gallup Independent, http://www.gallupindependent.com

 

Arizona Residents Accused of Selling Fake Native Jewelry

PHOENIX (AP) _ Three Arizona residents are among seven people charged with fraudulently selling jewelry imported from the Philippines as authentic Native American-made items.

A federal grand jury in Phoenix returned a 38-count indictment that alleges none of these jewelry items were indelibly marked with the country of origin as required by customs law.

They say 70-year-old Richard Dennis Nisbet of Peoria and his 31-year-old daughter Laura Marye Lott conspired with others to design and manufacture the jewelry in the Philippines and import it to the United States.

Lott then allegedly delivered the jewelry to retail stores in Arizona, Texas and other states and collected payments.

Prosecutors say 43-year-old Scottsdale jewelry store owner Waleed Sarrar conspired with Nisbet, Lott and others to pass off imitation jewelry manufactured abroad as authentic Native American items.

 

Scientists Observe Low Sea Ice in Bering Sea off Alaska

By DAN JOLING
Associated Press

ANCHORAGE, Alaska (AP) _ Open water has replaced sea ice in much of the Bering Sea off Alaska's west coast, leaving villages vulnerable to powerful winter storms and adding challenges to Alaska Native hunters seeking marine mammals, an expert said Monday.

Rick Thoman of the Alaska Center for Climate Assessment & Policy at the University of Alaska Fairbanks said that winter storms over five weeks obliterated thin ice that had formed since December.

Wind blew ice to Russian beaches in the west and to the south side of Norton Sound south of Nome but left open water all the way to Chukchi Sea north of the Bering Strait.

``You can take your sailboat from Dillingham to Diomede today,'' he said.

Sea ice historically covers much of the Bering Sea throughout the winter with maximum coverage through March. Kotzebue Sound, a great bay northeast of the Bering Strait, already has open water, an occurrence normally seen in June.

It's the second consecutive winter for low sea ice. Last year, it was low all season. This winter, a warm November was followed by a cold December and January, Thoman said.

``Then the weather pattern changed and the ice has just collapsed,'' he said. He suspects that heat in the ocean played a factor.

Phyllis Stabenow, a physical oceanographer at the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, said Monday that storms played a large role in the extreme low ice.

Winds from November to April typically blow out of the north or northwest and are cold, driving ice southward, she said by email. The year, warm winds in a series of storms blew out of the southwest in mid-January and especially February.

``These storms broke the ice up and pushed it north. Also some of the ice melted. So the ice is now similar in extent to what it was last year at this time and last year had the lowest maximum ice extent ever observed,'' she said.

Thoman and Stabenow did not label the unusual ice event as climate change. The Bering Sea has been warm for several years, Thoman said. The ice loss can be attributed to a warm ocean and combination of an unusual but not unprecedented weather pattern.

However, some events are unlikely to occur without climate change, he said.

Stabenow said no single event can be attributed to climate change.

``What can be said is that some climate models predict more southerly winds, which will reduce ice extent,'' she said. ``Also, an increase in southerly winds in the northern Bering Sea during the fall and winter has been observed since 2016.''

Sea ice is an important feature of the ecosystem. Its absence has implications above and below the ocean surface.

Coastal communities historically could rely on a barrier of sea ice after Labor Day to protect them from the pounding of fierce winter storms. Without an ice cover, waves erode beaches and sometimes flood villages, Thoman said.

Residents of coastal villages traditionally hunt and butcher marine mammals such as walruses and seals when the animals ``haul out'' on ice. Residents of St. Lawrence Island last year had to try to hunt in open water far from shore, Thoman said.

``Now instead of going out one mile, you have to go out 50. There's that increased cost,'' Thoman said. ``It's much more difficult to butcher an animal the size of a walrus in a boat as opposed to on ice. Much greater chance of injury to the people. Much greater chance of losing the animal altogether.''

Sea ice historically has formed a ``cold pool'' in the central Bering Sea, a barrier of cold water that sets the structure for fish. The cold pool acts as a thermal wall, keeping valuable commercial fish such walleye pollock and Pacific cod, in the southern and central Bering Sea.

In the absence of sea ice last year, federal fish biologists conducting surveys found that a 2018 cold pool had not formed and that southern species had migrated north in far greater numbers.

 

Ballpark Mustard Maker Drops Indians' Chief Wahoo Logo

CLEVELAND (AP) _ The maker of Cleveland's ballpark mustard is removing the Chief Wahoo logo from its branding and packaging to maintain longstanding ties with the Cleveland Indians baseball team.

Cleveland.com reports the Indians have told official partners like Bertman Foods Co., the maker of Bertman Original Ballpark Mustard, those relationships can't continue unless they stop using Chief Wahoo. The caricature is widely seen as racist and offensive to Native Americans.

The Indians will stop using Chief Wahoo on player uniforms starting this season. The club had been phasing out the logo for years and struck an agreement with Major League Baseball last year to discontinue its use altogether.

The team will continue to sell a few Chief Wahoo items at team shops to retain its trademark.

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Information from: cleveland.com, http://www.cleveland.com

 

Plaque That Calls Native Americans 'Savage Enemies' Removed

YARMOUTH, Maine (AP) _ A Maine town has removed a 90-year-old cemetery plaque that referred to Native Americans as ``savage enemies.''

Yarmouth Town Manager Nat Tupper says the historical marker was brought to his attention by residents who were preparing to make a presentation of the documentary ``Dawnland'' at the local library.

Tupper says the residents felt the marker was inconsistent with today's values, and it was removed from the cemetery Feb. 7.

Katie Worthing of the Yarmouth Historical Society says the sign will be archived for educational purposes.

Maria Girouard with a Wabanaki advocacy group says there are other signs with similar language around the state.

Girouard says that type of signage perpetuates stereotypes of violence, and she hopes other places will be inspired to remove it.

 

Bill Would Rename Columbus Day to Indigenous Peoples Day

AUGUSTA, Maine (AP) _ Maine lawmakers are set to consider trading the Columbus Day holiday for a tribute to Native Americans.

The Legislature's State and Local Government Committee is set to hold a hearing on the bill Monday.

Democratic Rep. Benjamin Collings of Portland sponsored the bill that renames the state holiday celebrated on the second Monday in October to Indigenous Peoples Day.

At least five states have done away with celebrating the explorer Christopher Columbus in deference to Native Americans, though the federal Columbus holiday remains in place. A similar bill recently passed a legislative committee in New Mexico.

Several Maine communities have adopted Indigenous Peoples Day, including Bangor and Portland.

Penobscot Nation Tribal Ambassador Maulian Dana praised municipalities for taking such steps at Democratic Gov. Janet Mills' inauguration.

 

New Mexico Seeks Student Assessments that Reflect Culture

SANTA FE, N.M. (AP) _ The state's newly appointed education secretary says the next version of statewide tests for student academic performance should reflect the unique cultures of a heavily Hispanic and Native American state.

New Mexico Public Education Secretary Karen Trujillo told reporters Friday that a clear picture should emerge in August of the new statewide assessments for students and that the exams need to be culturally relevant.

In one of her first actions as governor, Democrat Michelle Lujan Grisham did away with student assessments developed by the Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers that she pilloried as high-pressure and counterproductive. Students will take an abbreviated assessment this spring as new exams are developed.

Trujillo says assessments that include unfamiliar terms may not fully reflect a child's knowledge.

 

Sports Anglers Concerned About New Lake Superior Agreement

SUPERIOR, Wis. (AP) _ Some sports anglers have expressed frustration after Wisconsin officials and two tribes settled a new agreement for managing Lake Superior's fishery.

Wisconsin Public Radio reports that anglers say they were left out of the state's negotiations with the Red Cliff and Bad River Bands of Lake Superior Chippewa. The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources and the tribes approved the Lake Superior Fishing Agreement last month, saying the new terms will protect the Lake Superior fishery.

Apostle Islands Sports Fishermen's Association President Scott Bretting says the new agreement was negotiated behind closed doors. They're concerned that the agreement puts more pressure on the fishery, particularly a new commercial whitefish season in October.

DNR official Scott Loomans says they'll continually evaluate the new whitefish season. Loomans says the department doesn't believe the season will negatively impact the fishery.

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Information from: Wisconsin Public Radio, http://www.wpr.org

 

Maine Lawmakers to Consider Whether to Allow Sports Gambling

AUGUSTA, Maine (AP) _ Maine lawmakers are poised to debate whether to allow Mainers to legally place bets sports games.

The Portland Press Herald reports that lawmakers could consider bills including allowing sports betting by Maine casinos or the state's American Indian tribes.

Rhode Island is one of eight states the allow sports betting, and the only New England state to do so.

The newspaper reports that at least 30 other states have such bills in the works. A 2018 U.S. Supreme Court ruling overturned federal law prohibiting states from legalizing sports betting.

Few details of the Maine bills are available yet. Democratic Senate President Troy Jackson wants to prohibit gambling on Maine collegiate, minor league and high school teams.

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Information from: Portland Press Herald, http://www.pressherald.com

 

Partnership Aims to Help New Mexico Tribe Monitor its Land

ALBUQUERQUE, N.M. (AP) _ A Native American community in northern New Mexico will soon get help from solar-powered drones to monitor its vast land holdings from above.

Under a new partnership with Santa Fe-based Wildflower International, unmanned aerial systems made by Albuquerque-based Silent Falcon UAS Technologies will assist Pojoaque Pueblo in managing its roaming bison herd, mapping cultural sites and improving fire control and search-and-rescue efforts.

The Albuquerque Journal reports that the flights will begin this month.

The project will provide an opportunity for Wildflower to train its newly-formed UAS flight team. It's a new business for Wildflower, a 27-year-old information technology firm that Kimberly deCastro built into a company with more than 83 employees.

Since launching in 1991, Wildflower has relied almost exclusively on federal contracts for information technology products and services to grow its business. But given the rise of the cloud and plummeting costs for IT systems and services, profit margins are shrinking and the company is pivoting to the rapidly growing market for drone services.

``UAS operations are opening a lot more doors for us,'' deCastro said. ``It's an emerging market that we're investing heavily in.''

Wildflower partnered in 2018 with Silent Falcon, which equips its solar-powered drones with infrared cameras and other sensors for real-time surveillance and imaging. It sells the system to public and private entities worldwide, but it's now moving into service-based contracts to operate its system for customers.

It wants to break into federal contracting, said Silent Falcon CEO John Brown.

Wildflower already scored its first UAS contract to provide services with Silent Falcon drones to the U.S. Homeland Security Department starting in April. To do that, Wildflower's new six-member flight team needs to train in real-world terrain, which the Pojoaque partnership provides.

``We need to be accurate and safe and deliver the right data set to our customers,'' deCastro said. ``We need experience so when we fly for agencies it looks like the Air Force just showed up.''

Wildflower purchased two Silent Falcons, which will fly at Pojoaque.

In addition to its monitoring services, the company also will train pueblo members for UAS careers, something particularly appealing to Pojoaque Gov. Joseph Talachy.

``To be successful tomorrow, the members of the pueblo need to gain the skills for the jobs of tomorrow,'' Talachy said in a statement. ``There seems to be no doubt that unmanned aircraft is a technology that has huge growth potential.''

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Information from: Albuquerque Journal, http://www.abqjournal.com

 

Wisconsin Management Area Approved to Combat Deer Disease

MADISON, Wis. (AP) _ A task force has established new restrictions on Native American tribal members' transporting or disposing of deer carcasses within certain parts of Wisconsin due to the risk of spreading chronic wasting disease.

The Voigt Intertribal Task Force approved a tribal management area in parts of Oneida, Lincoln and Langlade counties to safeguard deer from being exposed to the fatal neurological disease, Wisconsin Public Radio reported. The task force is comprised of members from tribes in Michigan, Minnesota and Wisconsin and recommends policies regarding tribal rights to hunt, fish and gather off-reservation.

The management area sets boundaries which tribal members will be prohibited from moving deer into and beyond because of an increased likelihood for a deer to be infected with chronic wasting disease. The new policy also prohibits tribal members from disposing of any deer carcass within the zone, except at the site of the kill, a licensed landfill or a designated collection location.

CWD is spread through deer-to-deer contact and fatally attacks an infected animal's nervous system.

The new rules come in response to two incidents this year in which deer tested positive for the disease near tribal communities in Lincoln and Oneida counties, according to Travis Bartnick, a wildlife biologist for the Great Lakes Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission.

The move also comes after Wisconsin lawmakers in October rejected Gov. Scott Walker's emergency rule to limit hunters from moving deer carcasses from counties affected by the disease.

The tribal members ``want to do everything in their power to protect the wild whitetail deer and elk herd,'' Bartnick said. ``Even though they're such a minority of the population of deer hunters out there, they want to be able to set this example of how to do things in the right way.''

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Information from: Wisconsin Public Radio, http://www.wpr.org

 

New Mexico Rural Water Projects Get $35M Federal Boost

ALBUQUERQUE, N.M. (AP) _ Efforts to build water and wastewater systems and improve existing infrastructure in a few communities in rural New Mexico will see a $35 million infusion of federal funding.

Members of New Mexico's congressional delegation announced the funding this week from U.S. Department of Agriculture Rural Development.

The money comes in the form of low-interest loans and grants and is set aside for tribes, colonias and rural communities with 10,000 or fewer residents.

Projects in Garfield, Socorro and San Miguel County are among the recipients.

The largest share will go to the Navajo Tribal Utility Authority in San Juan County to build a new wastewater delivery and treatment plant. The old system exceeded federal standards by releasing high rates of effluent into the San Juan River.

Oklahoma's Choctaw Horses Connect to Mississippi

Choctaw horses. (Photo Credit: returntofreedom.org)

By JANET McCONNAUGHEY
Associated Press

POPLARVILLE, Miss. (AP) _ Six foals sired by a cream-colored stallion called DeSoto scamper across a pasture in southwest Mississippi _ the first new blood in a century for a line of horses brought to America by Spanish conquistadors and bred by Choctaw Indians who were later forced out of their ancestral homelands.

Choctaw horses were thought to be long gone from this region, disappearing when their Native American owners were expelled from the U.S. Southeast by the government. But the surprise discovery of DeSoto on a farm in Poplarville 13 years ago led to a plan to help the dwindling strain survive.

``That really gives us a shot in the arm,'' said Bryant Rickman, who has been working since 1980 near Antlers, Oklahoma, to restore the line. He estimates he has bred more than 300 of the horses from nine mares and three stallions. But having so few stallions led to a bottleneck, because the gene pool was so small.

Choctaws saw great power in horses. Ian Thompson, tribal historic preservation officer for the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma, said their word for horse, issoba, means ``like a deer'' _ and the deer was the tribe's most important animal, both economically and spiritually.

``So naming the horse after the deer was really saying something,'' Thompson said.

Choctaw horses are descended from those brought to the United States in the 1500s and later by Spanish explorers and colonists, said Dr. D. Phillip Sponenberg of the Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine at Virginia Tech.

It's one strain in a breed called Colonial Spanish horses, often referred to by the misleading term ``Spanish mustang.'' Colonial Spanish horses are among the world's few genetically unique horse breeds, and are of great historic importance to this country, Sponenberg said.

The Choctaw nation lived in much of what are now Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana. Choctaws owned tens of thousands of horses by 1830, when Congress gave President Andrew Jackson the power to force Indians out of lands east of the Mississippi, Thompson said.

The relocation of Choctaw, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Muscogee, and Seminole Indians to Oklahoma, which has come to be known as the ``Trail of Tears,'' took decades. Thompson said more than 12,000 Choctaw people made the journey but an estimated 3,000 to 4,000 died along the way. In Oklahoma, the Choctaw and their horses were part of the cattle-ranching economy.

The horses are small but tough and durable.

``They're very people-oriented. They're just as docile as your favorite dog,'' said Rickman.

DeSoto was discovered in 2005 when Sponenberg visited Poplarville to check out small cattle descended from Spanish colonial stock. He was surprised to find Spanish colonial sheep, there, too. Then came the day's biggest surprise.

``Out of the woods came this horse, single-footing,'' he said, referring to a smooth gait between walking and galloping, rather than the bouncing trot common to most horses.

Bill Frank Brown was 14 when he inherited the Poplarville farm that Sponenberg visited in 2005. The farm had been in Brown's family since 1881 and the livestock there, even longer. Brown had three stallions back then, including DeSoto. He called them pine tacky horses. The Texas A&M veterinary school tested samples of the stallions' DNA, and they matched those of Rickman's Choctaws.

Two of the stallions have since died, leaving only DeSoto. Sponenberg picked the mares that would be the best genetic matches for DeSoto, and they were brought to Mississippi last year. The Browns say some of the offspring will remain in Mississippi while others will go back to Oklahoma, along with pregnant mares.

 

Bass Pro Shops Pulls Trail of Tears Rifle Amid Complaints

TULSA, Okla. (AP) _ Bass Pro Shops pulled a used 1978 Winchester rifle commemorating the Cherokee Trail of Tears from one of its Arkansas store's shelves and apologized to the tribe after a photo of the gun led to calls to boycott the outdoor gear chain.

A customer in Rogers, Arkansas, posted photos of the rifle on Twitter, leading to accusations that Bass Pro was profiting from the tragic forced relocation of the Cherokee Nation that began in 1838. More than 4,000 Cherokee died during the more than 1,000-mile walk to what is now Oklahoma in what is known as the Trail of Tears.

The company's communications director, Jack Wlezien, told The Tulsa World that the rifle was acquired from a trade-in and is not part of the store's standard stock.

``It's a niche product that came in on a trade,'' Wlezien said. ``As you can imagine, there are a wide range of firearms traded on a regular basis, and there wasn't much deep consideration about the individual gun from a merchandising standpoint by our (sales) associate, but now we are taking steps to be sure we're dealing with it appropriately.''

Cherokee Nation Secretary of State Chuck Hoskin Jr. applauded the company's decision to remove the rifle and ``for using the incident as a teaching moment.''

``The story of the Trail of Tears is one of survival and the ability to adapt and survive in unimaginable circumstances,'' he said. ``We hope in today's environment companies will reach out to Native tribes to better understand our history.''

The Tulsa World reported that according to the website winchestercollector.org, a .30-30 or .22-caliber Winchester Model 1894 ``Cherokee Carbine'' that matches the image of the Bass Pro Shops rifle was one of dozens of Winchester rifles manufactured from 1964 to 2006 that annually commemorated people and historic events, including Bat Masterson, John Wayne and the purchase of Alaska from Russia.

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Information from: Tulsa World, http://www.tulsaworld.com

 

Program for Tribes to Access Crime Databases Expanding

FLAGSTAFF, Ariz. (AP) _ A federal program for Native American tribes to access national crime information databases is expanding.

The number of participants in the Tribal Access Program is expected to rise from 47 to 72 by the end of 2019.

The tribes can use the databases to do background checks, and see outstanding warrants and domestic violence protection orders.

The U.S. Justice Department and the Department of the Interior said Monday the expansion will help solve crimes and make communities safer.

The Justice Department provides funding for either kiosks that can process prints, take mug shots and submit records or for computer software.

Three of the 25 tribes that are part of the expansion are in Arizona. Others are in California, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Montana, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Washington and Wyoming.

Cherokee Nation Responds to Senator Warren’s DNA Test

Chuck Hoskin Jr.

TAHLEQUAH, Okla. — Cherokee Nation Secretary of State Chuck Hoskin Jr. issued the following statement Monday in response to Senator Elizabeth Warren’s DNA test claiming Native Heritage:

"A DNA test is useless to determine tribal citizenship. Current DNA tests do not even distinguish whether a person’s ancestors were indigenous to North or South America," Cherokee Nation Secretary of State Chuck Hoskin Jr. said. "Sovereign tribal nations set their own legal requirements for citizenship, and while DNA tests can be used to determine lineage, such as paternity to an individual, it is not evidence for tribal affiliation. Using a DNA test to lay claim to any connection to the Cherokee Nation or any tribal nation, even vaguely, is inappropriate and wrong. It makes a mockery out of DNA tests and its legitimate uses while also dishonoring legitimate tribal governments and their citizens, whose ancestors are well documented and whose heritage is proven. Senator Warren is undermining tribal interests with her continued claims of tribal heritage."

To learn more about the Cherokee Nation, visit www.cherokee.org

 

Virginia's Indian Tribes Celebrate Federal Recognition

By MARIE ALBIGES
Daily Press

WEROWOCOMOCO, Va. (AP) _ On land once occupied by their ancestors, members of seven Virginia Indian tribes gathered Wednesday to celebrate being formally recognized by the federal government.

It was an emotional day for tribal leaders, who partook in traditional Native American dances with Secretary of the Interior Ryan Zinke, U.S. Rep. Rob Wittman, representatives from the Virginia governor's and U.S. Senate's offices, and officials from the National Park Service.

``It's been a long time coming,'' Nansemond Chief Lee Lockamy said on the grounds of Werowocomoco, the former home of Chief Powhatan and Pocahontas, in Gloucester.

The elected officials, whose crisp suits looked out of place next to the colorful regalia worn by tribal members, called the recognition _ which makes the tribes eligible for federal funding and services_ long overdue.

``We all sometimes lamented and said, `Is this ever going to happen?' `` Wittman said. ``Through faith, through dedication, today is indeed here.''

The Pamunkey, Chickahominy, Chickahominy Eastern Division, Monacan, Nansemond, Rappahannock and Upper Mattaponi tribes have been trying to get federal recognition for decades, both through bills and the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs.

In 2015, the Pamunkey became the first in the state to receive federal recognition from the bureau. The effort involved painstakingly assembling the documentation needed to meet seven standards set by the government, including extensive genealogical records showing that their current members descended from the historical tribe.

That federal recognition paved the way, in part, for the Pamunkey to get into the gaming business and to plan a $700 million casino on land approved by the Bureau of Indian Affairs that was once part of Pamunkey territory.

The federal recognition of the six other tribes came through the signing of the Thomasina E. Jordan Indian Tribes of Virginia Federal Recognition Act, spearheaded by Wittman and signed into law in January.

Unlike the Pamunkey, those six tribes are specifically barred from launching gambling enterprises. But they're still eligible for steps like taking back historical and cultural tribal artifacts, consulting on federal agency actions and receiving federal funds for housing, education and medical care.

Zinke, who was appointed to his position in 2017, said he wanted to make sure the government is in partnership with the tribes.

``My job is to make sure the tribes are sovereign. And sovereignty means something _ that the destiny of every nation is theirs to decide. And in many ways, it's to get the government out of the way so the tribes can decide.''

For Rappahannock Chief Anne Richardson, it felt good to finally see the work of generations of tribal members come to fruition.

``This is liberty for us. This is justice for us,'' she said. ``And we're finally seeing the promises that are inherent in our constitution that we've been left out of all these years.''

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Information from: Daily Press, http://www.dailypress.com/

 

7 People Sentenced in Colorado Tribe's Financial Scam Case

CORTEZ, Colo. (AP) _ The U.S. attorney's office says seven people have been sentenced in a financial scam case that resulted in $1.1 million in federal funds found stolen from the Ute Mountain Ute tribe.

The Cortez Journal reports 13 people have pleaded guilty to charges related to the scam that involved employees of the tribe's Financial Services Department who fraudulently dispersed checks to people they selected between 2011 and 2015.

According to court documents, the people who received the checks, including non-tribal members and inmates, would cash them, and then usually share the cash with the employees.

The sentences handed down this summer in federal court in Durango ranged from 15 months in prison to years of probation. All were ordered to pay restitution in amounts that ranged from $22,000 to $142,000.

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Information from: Cortez Journal, http://www.cortezjournal.com/

 

Bismarck's New Police Chief Looks to the Future

BISMARCK, N.D. (AP) _ For Bismarck's new police chief, law enforcement is in his blood.

Dave Draovitch has worked his way up through the ranks to the Bismarck department's top spot, just like his father did in Minot years ago, the Bismarck Tribune reported.

``This is all I've really known, as far back as I can remember, is being around law enforcement,'' he said.

Draovitch has spent nearly three decades with the department, working from police officer to K-9 handler to sergeant, until 2013 when he became deputy chief. The Bismarck City Commission offered him the top police job last month.

``From (an) internal (appointment) like Dave, you've got a very good knowledge and understanding of the complete setup of the agency, all the employees and positions they're working,'' said Dan Donlin, the former police chief.

Donlin said one adjustment to being chief is to build relationship with city administration and department leaders, and taking care of employees while being available to residents.

``I know he'll do a good job,'' he said.

Draovitch said some of his goals in the new position include addressing disproportionate contact with minorities and remaining engaged with youth. He said he's also reached out to leaders in the local Native American community to hear their concerns.

``I think it's a powerful practice to reflect on what we're doing, and I think it's important to recognize the minority groups that we have in the community and make sure that we are serving them to the same level as we're serving everyone in our community,'' said City Commissioner Shawn Oban, who calls the focus on Native Americans ``vitally important.''

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Information from: Bismarck Tribune, http://www.bismarcktribune.com

 

Kah-Nee-Ta Resort Will Close Wednesday

PORTLAND, Ore. (AP) _ The tribal-owned and operated Kah-nee-ta Resort & Spa will close for good Wednesday.

The Oregonian/OregonLive reports the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Tribal Council voted last week to move forward with a plan to close the resort, ending speculation that the tribes could find a way to keep the facility and its 146 workers in business.

The golf course will also close.

The resort sits on the Warm Springs Reservation 70 miles (113 kilometers) north of Bend. The confederated tribes include 5,300 members from the Warm Springs, Wasco, and Paiute tribes.

According to a statement from the tribal government, the decision to close the resort was far from unanimous among the 11-member tribal council. Three members voted yes, five abstained from voting and the chairman did not vote.

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Information from: The Oregonian/OregonLive, http://www.oregonlive.com

 

Kah-Nee-Ta Resort to Close, 146 Employees to Lose Jobs

PORTLAND, Ore. (AP) _ One of Oregon's biggest resorts is set to close this summer and 146 employees will lose their jobs.

The Oregonian/OregonLive reports Kah-Nee-Ta Resort and Spa, which operates on the Warm Springs Indian Reservation in central Oregon, announced Friday that it will shutter all operations Sept. 5.

An announcement sent from interim general manager Marie Kay Williams says the decision came as the ``the resort cannot continue operating below a self-sustaining level.''

She wrote that closing the resort is necessary to protect the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs from further financial risk.

With the closing of the resort, 146 employees will be laid off. That includes spa, restaurant, maintenance, room service and administrative workers.

Williams didn't return calls for comment on the decision.

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Information from: The Oregonian/OregonLive, http://www.oregonlive.com

Marker Honors Native Americans Who Drove Out the KKK

MAXTON, N.C. (AP) _ North Carolina's latest historical highway marker commemorates the Lumbee Tribe driving the Ku Klux Klan out of their county in 1958.

The Robesonian reports the Battle of Hayes Pond sign was dedicated Thursday, during the 50th Annual Lumbee Homecoming in Robeson County.

The marker honors the confrontation between the Lumbee and Klansmen who showed up for a rally on a January day 60 years ago. The outnumbered Klansmen fled in the face of gunfire from the Lumbee. There were no casualties on either side.

The marker idea was proposed by students at the University of North Carolina at Pembroke, who sought the tribe's approval before proceeding.

Thursday's dedication was attended by Woodrow Dial, who was 17 when he accompanied his father to confront the KKK.

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Information from: The Robesonian, http://www.robesonian.com

This post will remain active until August, 29, 2018

Environmental groups complain about Atlantic Coast Pipeline

CHARLOTTE, N.C. (AP) _ A coalition says North Carolina failed to protect the civil rights of residents of color when it approved permits for the proposed Atlantic Coast Pipeline.

The groups want the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's civil rights division to require the state Department of Environmental Quality to rescind the permits and perform a more thorough analysis.

The News & Observer of Raleigh reported first on their complaint, which accuses the state and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission of failing to consider the health and environmental impact. It also says the state obscured the route's disproportionate impact on blacks and Native Americans by comparing demographics within a mile of the pipeline to the rest of each county, rather than the rest of the state.

``The State agencies appear to have relied on FERC's flawed analysis of environmental justice without any separate analysis,'' the groups said in the letter. ``Just because there is a low population concentration does not mean people of low income or people of color would not be disproportionately impacted.''

The letter also noted FERC and the state failed to compare the preferred route with alternatives, noting that a route under early consideration would have passed through ``wealthier and predominantly white communities near Raleigh'' as the $5 billion project carries fracked natural gas from West Virginia through Virginia and North Carolina.

FBI offering reward in Pine Ridge killing investigation

PINE RIDGE, S.D. (AP) _ The FBI is offering a reward of up to $2,500 for information in a slaying on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation last fall.

Twenty-four-year-old Raymond Waters Jr. was found dead inside a burned mobile home in Allen on Oct. 16. The FBI says an autopsy concluded he had died before the fire, likely from ax blows, and the fire might have been an act of arson intended to conceal the killing.

The Rapid City Journal reports a juvenile has been charged with second-degree murder in Ray's death. Water's uncle, 45-year-old Nathaniel Waters, was charged in March with being an accessory and lying to federal investigators. He has pleaded not guilty.

Authorities have not said if they are seeking additional suspects.

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Information from: Rapid City Journal, http://www.rapidcityjournal.com

Irish prime minister thanks Choctaw Nation in Oklahoma

DURANT, Okla. (AP) _ The prime minister of Ireland has visited members of a Native American tribe in Oklahoma to thank them for a gift sent 171 years ago.

Members of the Choctaw Nation collected $170 in 1847 and sent it to Dublin to help feed the Irish during a potato famine. The money would be worth about $4,400 today.

Prime Minister Leo Varadkar met with tribal members in the southern Oklahoma city of Durant as part of a weeklong trip to the U.S. He said the gift is a sacred memory and bond.

The gathering included Oklahoma Gov. Mary Fallin, who said she was supporting the Choctaw Nation and Oklahomans.

Choctaw Chief Gary Batton visited Ireland last year to attend the unveiling of a sculpture called Kindred Spirits that commemorates the relationship between the tribe and Ireland.

New Mexico teacher develops braille code for Navajo

FARMINGTON, N.M. (AP) _ A public school teacher in a New Mexico town situated near the country's largest American Indian reservation has developed a braille code for the Navajo language.

Carol Green, who began developing vision problems as a child and is now a teacher for blind and visually impaired students in Farmington, developed a system of raised dots that enables people to read and write the Navajo language through touch, The Daily Times reported .

The Navajo braille is based off the English code but it eliminates certain letters. The new braille also adds a prefix code for vowels and how to pronounce them.

``The advantage of having this code for the reader is that they can distinguish and pronounce everything properly,'' Green said.

Learning the basics of the Navajo language from her grandparents, Green said that exposure started a lifelong interest in learning more of the language.

Green learned how to read and write braille in 2009 after her vision continued to deteriorate. Green said that she wanted to advance her learning of the Navajo language, so she inquired with the Braille Authority of North America in 2013 to discover a braille code for Navajo did not exist.

Green went to work and developed the first code for Navajo.

Before joining the Farmington Municipal School District in 2010, Green also taught at schools in Shiprock and Red Mesa, Arizona.

Green also created the new braille code so the Navajo students she teaches could have an opportunity to learn the language, she said.

``I thought if I am going to develop it for myself, then I might as well share it so these children have that opportunity. The same as their peers,'' Green said.

In a resolution approved in October 2015, the Navajo Nation Board of Education adopted the Navajo braille code to teach to blind and visually impaired tribal members.

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Information from: The Daily Times, http://www.daily-times.com

Native American identity absent from urban Oklahoma schools

By BEN FELDER
The Oklahoman

OKLAHOMA CITY (AP) _ Most of Oklahoma's nearly 130,000 Native American students attend school in small towns, often in communities where their tribe's history is woven into the town's patchwork.

But for the 20 percent of Native students who attend a school in the state's two largest metro areas, cultural connections can be harder to find, especially when it comes to a specific identity.

``Our Native program doesn't include Native language because I have 77 tribes represented (throughout the district), so if I pick one language someone is going to be upset or left out,'' said Star Yellowfish, director of Native American student services for Oklahoma City Public Schools.

The state Department of Education counts more than 1,100 American Indian students in the Oklahoma City school district. But that number represents students with a variety of different tribal affiliations, the largest being Choctaw, Cherokee and Creek.

While Oklahoma City schools have more Native students than most districts, those students are spread out among nearly 100 schools, which can make it tough for a student to see others who share the same cultural identity.

Connecting Native students with each other can be especially important in an urban school system, said George Shields, director of Indian Education for Putnam City Schools.

``In a rural setting, a lot of Native kids are going to get to see grandma and grandpa, uncles and aunts, and feel more connected to their family and their heritage,'' Shields said. ``Our kids don't get that. A lot of the (Native American) families in my district have moved here for a job and it might involve taking that student out of their culture.''

School districts with Indian Education programs, like Putnam City, often provide tutoring, mentoring, test preparation workshops and cultural classes for Native American students.

Districts use parent committees and advisory groups to make decisions on how to disburse funding from Title VI and the federal Johnson-O'Malley Program.

However, some of the federal funding was frozen based on Native American student counts in 1994, even though most school districts in the area have seen their Native American student populations significantly increase since then.

The adjustment to a large urban school is a challenge for some Native American families, especially if the parents' own experience was attending a tribal school when they were younger.

Sheril Thompson, director of Indian Education for the Mid-Del school district, said she often works with Native American families who recently moved to the city and struggle with getting acclimated.

``A lot of your rural schools are sitting in a tribe and they have so many resources right there. Whereas we are up here with not a whole lot,'' Thompson said.

Jillian Palomino, who is Cherokee, is one of around 55 Native American students at Del City High School. But she said it's hard to know those other students because of the school's large size.

``I'm sure if I lived in Tahlequah my heritage would be more of a part of my life,'' said Palomino, referring to the capital city of the Cherokee Nation. ``But being here in the city it's not as much a part of your life.''

Logan Seeley, a senior at Carl Albert High School who is Choctaw, said he'd like to see his classes go deeper with Native American history, especially in a community where there aren't as many chances to learn about the culture outside of school.

His great grandfather's skin was dark and he faced racism because of it. Logan wants to know that history and he wants to learn it in the classroom.

``In Oklahoma history we went over how tribes got here, but that's about it,'' Seeley said.

Phil Gover grew up in the Reno-Sparks Indian Colony in Nevada and he now wants to create a school in Oklahoma City that not only teaches Native American history, but incorporates a Native perspective in all curriculum areas.

``We have a critical mass of Native students in the city that we can serve with a very different take on curriculum and content,'' said Gover, who is leading an effort to launch the Sovereign Community School.

Gover's group is awaiting a response from the Oklahoma City Public Schools after filing an application to open the proposed charter school in 2019, the Oklahoman reported . The application sets a goal to serve 500 mostly Native students within a few years of opening.

``Underlying our school is the notion that Native students will learn better because they are given access to a curriculum that shows Native people in classes outside of history,'' Gover said. ``We are going to read awesome books in our literature class, but we are going to read books by Native people that talk about Native experiences.

``The real idea is you see yourself reflected in the things you are learning about and that raises your engagement.''

Nationally, American Indian students are often highlighted as an academically underachieving student group, especially within the federal government's Bureau of Indian Education school network, where many students have had to overcome generations of forced disenfranchisement.

But there is evidence American Indian students in Oklahoma's public school system perform well, especially compared to other states.

In early 2017, the state Department of Education highlighted Oklahoma's nation-leading scores in fourth- and eighth-grade math and reading for Native students.

In Mid-Del schools, Thompson said over 200 of the district's Native students participate in a gifted and talented program.

The Oklahoma Indian Student Honor Society is a program that not only celebrates academic success among Native American students, but it also offers a chance for students to connect with their heritage in deeper ways, Thompson said.

``In order to get cultural points for the Oklahoma Indian Student Honor Society, many of our (Native) students go out and read to our elementary school kids ... from culturally relevant books the district purchased,'' Thompson said.

Gover said the challenge many Native students in an urban school system face is connecting to their cultural identity, rather than conforming to the world around them.

``Among urban Indians, at least this was my experience ... if you are not already very closely tied to your culture (when you enter school) it can be really hard to keep that part of you,'' Gover said. ``Everything about our system and our schools ... pressures them to conform, to assimilate, to become less like their cultural identity is and become more of the mainstream culture.''

Gover hopes he can prevent a whole new generation from losing their Native American culture, especially those growing up in Oklahoma City.

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Information from: The Oklahoman, http://www.newsok.com