“Our office is truly not considered as a ‘nice to have,’ it's considered a ‘must have.’” – Stephanie Miller, Director, Office of Diversity, Equality and Inclusion, United States Department of Defense
By NAT STAFF
Editor’s Note: The adjoining story below the interview is entitled, “The Native American: Warriors in the U.S. Military.”
Native America Today (NAT): Please tell us about yourself, from your roots leading up to your current position with the Department of Defense.
Stephanie Miller (SM): I grew up in a military family, where my father and mother were both naval officers. That certainly inspired me to commit to service in the same way. I started my career as a warfare officer on the USS Bunker Hill and USS George Washington in Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom. Then I came to Washington D.C. and eventually made my way to the Pentagon, where I served as Director of Women’s Policy for the Navy, Director of Diversity and Inclusion for the Department, and Special Assistant to Secretary of Defense Hagel and then Carter. In that capacity, I was responsible for the personnel and readiness portfolio. Today, I’m the Department’s Chief Diversity Officer and Director of the Office of Diversity, Equality and Inclusion.
NAT: In your work as a diversity officer or before, did you ever visit a reservation or attend functions, like Pow Wows?
SM: Unfortunately I haven’t had an opportunity to visit a reservation in the course of my career. But I did serve as the Department’s Native American Special Emphasis Program Manager and in that capacity, I had the opportunity to attend events that have always really stuck with me. One was the American Indian Science and Engineering Society’s annual symposium. They brought together high school students, college leaders and doctoral degree candidates. I attended their Pow Wow and it was very spiritual and uniting for everyone. Even though I don't have that history within my own background, they made me feel so welcome in participating and being part of it. The other events were sponsored by the Society of American Indian Government Employees.
NAT: Well, not many non-Natives have had that spiritual experience and pleased you did. What was the thinking, the genesis behind creating DoD’s Office of Diversity, Equality and Inclusion?
SM: The Department has had an office that's been focused on diversity and inclusion for years. More recently, our particular office has gone through an evolution to focus specifically on what kind of policies and procedures and oversight we need to have in place to ensure we're meeting our goals. The Department has long seen diversity and inclusion as a strategic imperative critical to mission readiness and accomplishment. We value the diversity in each individual based upon their unique attributes, experiences, their heritage, their faith because that contributes to the execution of the DoD mission.
NAT: If you had to summarize it, what would you consider the major challenge of your office’s mission?
SM: I think that the challenge for us is maintaining broad oversight of so many different facets of military service and career service. It's not just a matter of counting how many of one type of population we have and then giving us a gold star for having high numbers of that one population. We need to be more broadly responsible for assessing how many are going into combat arms, how many are going to join professional military education opportunity, how many are being selected for command assignment and ultimately how many are going on to become senior leaders in the Department. We need to maintain focus on that entire pipeline for both officers and civilians and where it's working well to understand how we can emulate those best practices in other locations where it’s not going well.
NAT: Speaking of AISES, student chapter information is obtainable and could represent a recruiting source. If we provided your office this information, what would you do with it?
SM: Great question and if that's available, we would certainly look to leaders within NAM programs or leaders within AISES and other groups as to how to deliver the information about the opportunities that exist either in uniformed service or as a DoD federal worker.
NAT: Like other federal agencies, does DoD have a tribal relations office and/or a Native American Program Manager?
SM: We have an American Indian Alaskan Native and Hawaiian Cultural Communication and Consultation Program, and we also have a senior advisor and liaison for Native American Affairs. Our current senior advisor is Alicia Madalena Sylvester, an expert within the Department on Federal Indian Law, history, culture and consultation. She’s also an enrolled member of the Pueblo of Jemez in New Mexico.
Mr. F. Michael Sena accepting a feather shadow box on behalf of the Department of Defense, who participated in the 2018 Society of American Indian Government Employees National Training Program. Presenting the award is Ms. Sue Marcus, SAIGE Board Member. (Photo Credit: DoD Press Operations)
NAT: Have you identified any segments of the general population you feel may be underrepresented in your workforces? Some federal agencies report Native Americans have been underrepresented.
SM: Specifically talking about American Indian Alaska Native populations, we're pretty proud because we've demonstrated an increase in representation across our officer corps of 36 percent over the last 10 years, while at the same time the entire officer corps increased by just 3 percent. So you can really see where we had an increase of American Indian Alaskan Natives, and our Officer Corps is our senior level of service.
NAT: This is great news and I’m sure many will be pleased to hear of those high scores.
SM: And we've also seen a 39 percent increase at American Indian Alaska representation within what we call our 01 to 03. That's our initial entry officer level, and we're growing these individuals in the new leadership role.
NAT: How were you able to increase your numbers so significantly?
SM: Over the last several years we’ve certainly seen an emphasis on trying to recruit from populations where we haven’t recruited as much in the past. So I think we've seen a broad effort across the Department to go out where young people are and that includes being out there in the Midwest and in Alaska and other communities where we may not have necessarily done as good a job in promoting the opportunities that are available for military or federal service. I think it has been a concentrated effort from across all the components in the Department to better advertise ourselves and to provide information to young people across a wide variety of backgrounds. What we have found is that so often it's not that people are saying no. It’s that in many cases they don't know what the opportunities are. And when we’re able to just spend a little bit of time, whether it's in school or at an event or at the kitchen table with Mom and Dad just answering questions and dispelling myths or preconceived notions, that goes a long way in educating them about the opportunities that are available.
Historical photography collage of Native Americans serving in the Armed Forces (Graphic Artist: Mark Martinez)
NAT: What would you say to people considering a military career – whether it be uniform or civilian personnel?
SM: The Department offers tremendous opportunities for leadership and development at an early career phase and that applies equally at a uniformed level and the civilian level. There are opportunities to further your education, opportunities to deploy and serve overseas, opportunities to be in charge of others and develop your leadership skills at a young age and to be a voice in the national security discussions of the day. For me, the exciting aspect has always been whether in uniform or as a government civilian, you work closely in the national security space and with those who are evaluating the tough questions of the day.
NAT: Then I would say enlisting because it’s simply a “job” is far different than joining because you're impassioned and it comes from your heart.
SM: Right and I think that circles right back to where we started, in the sense you know those benefits and sacrifices, and that dovetails with what I have seen from the Native American community. That sense of pride, that sense of service, that sense of putting others before self.
NAT: Well thank you, Ms. Miller. This has been both informative and enjoyable. It’s also wonderful how you developed an internal, spiritual connection to the community.
SM: I would welcome the opportunity again, as it really did touch me. And as an aside one of my favorite authors is Louise Erdrich. I've always loved her writing and learning from her experiences in the Native American community, and her novels about the Westward Expansion. I think more people should be aware of those things.
Native America Today and NAM Programs wish to express our appreciation to the U.S. Department of Defense’s Office of Diversity, Equality and Inclusion and Office of the Secretary, Press Operations, for their support in making this interview possible.
(Editor's Note: The following adjoining story also appears as a separate post)
THE NATIVE AMERICAN: WARRIORS IN THE U.S. MILITARY
(BY LT. COLONEL BRIAN J. GILBERTSON, UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS)
The Native American warrior tradition continues today as thousands of Natives are serving proudly in the military. The United States military has become, de facto, the only way an Indian can join the society of warriors, where there has historically been a strong sense of honor. That sense has not been lost over time. Native Americans continue to hold deep respect for their warriors, who currently wear the uniforms of the United States Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marines.
James Elbert "Jake" McNiece (Choctaw) of the 101st airborne. (Photo Credit: Websta)
Snapshot of Native American History & Contributions to the Armed Forces
Native Americans had no universal policy during the American Revolution. Some chose to ally themselves with the British, others served as Minutemen for the colonist rebellion, and others remained neutral. Their contributions to the war went beyond direct participation. Americans often attributed their victory in the Revolutionary War to the use of Indian tactics. That is a bold statement, but the military clearly changed its tactics in battle more significantly than its British regular army counterparts. Indians continued to fight for America after the revolution, not just as allies, but also as soldiers in the military.
The Catawbas tribe and others sided with the Colonialist Patriots, due to their friendship and ties to settlers. The Cherokees sided with the British to protect their land from further encroachment. (Photo Credit: Know It All)
As many as 20,000 American Indians served in the military during the Civil War. Similar to the American Revolution, Native Americans held no universal policy during the war. Tribes aligned themselves according to treaties and proper defense of their homelands. Indians held prominent positions on both sides of the conflict. A Cherokee leader, Stand Watie, was a Confederate brigadier general and at one point was given operational control over white troops. General Ulysses S. Grant's adjutant was a Seneca: Colonel Ely S. Parker, who wrote the document of surrender at Appomattox, and was later promoted to brigadier general.
Harvard educated Ely S. Parker (Seneca) was a Union Civil War Colonel who wrote the terms of surrender between the United States and the Confederate States. He was one of two Native Americans to reach the rank of Brigadier General during the Civil War. Later in his career, President Grant appointed him as Commissioner of Indian Affairs, the first Native American to hold that post. (Photo Credit: www.galenahistory.org)
Ely Samuel Parker (left) with General Ulysses S. Grant and Staff. (Photo Credit: NPS)
Iroquois man in Union Army Uniform (Photo Credit: Library of Congress)
Henry Wassagezhic (aka Henry Condecon). Company K, First Michigan Sharpshooters. Henry’s Chippewa family name means “Bright Sky.” Both his father and mother were descended from a long line of well respected and revered chiefs. His war experiences from Company K, First Michigan Sharpshooters are highlighted in the book, "Warriors in Mr. Lincoln’s Army." (Photo Credit: Proceedings of the La Pointe band of Chippewa Indians in General Council and Assembled at Odanah, Wisconsin, 1907).
The 1st Cherokee Mounted Rifles (left) were a Confederate States Army regiment which fought in the Indian Territory. One of its two commanders was Cherokee leader Stand Watie (right). (Photo Credit: The Miniatures Page, Zazzle)
World War I
In the early 20th century when the world was at war, Native Americans joined the fight to defend their homeland against German aggression. Nearly 17,000 Indians served in the military during World War I. They served at twice the per capita rate, when compared to the rest of the U.S. population. Their numbers were not the only significant part of their war contribution. Some Choctaws, for example, transmitted orders over the telephone in their tribal language. It was America's first experiment with an unbreakable code the Germans were unable to decipher.
Due in large part to their perceived natural abilities and skill at warfare, Indians received dangerous assignments. Native soldiers had a far higher casualty rate than that of any other group: five percent of Natives died in combat while less than one percent of all other members of the American Expeditionary Force in France died. This theme of exploiting Indian courage in battle remained a part of American military methodology through Vietnam.
It is noteworthy that Native American warriors chose to fight for the United States even though about half of them did not hold citizenship during all of World War I. The absence of recognition by the United States government did not stop Indians from feeling obligated to defend their nation. The issue was resolved eventually and by the time the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, all American Indians were United States citizens.
The American Indians who served with Company E, 142nd Infantry, 36th Division, during World War I were some of the nation's first "code-talkers." (Photo Credit: National World War I Museum and Memorial)
Choctaw Code Talkers Joseph Oklahombi, Tobias Frazier and Otis Leader (Photo Credit: Oklahoma Historical Society)
World War II
During the Second World War, the most famous and widely publicized story was that of the Code Talkers. Their legacy of transmitting an unbreakable code over the radio waves during the war proved vital to the success of the Americans battling throughout the Pacific. It is arguably still the Navajo people's "greatest symbol and source of cultural pride." While the Navajo contribution of over 400 code talkers remains the most publicized, Native Americans from across the continent played a crucial role in "code talking," including members from Wisconsin and Michigan.
In 1941, armed with optimism and having declared Indians to be fellow Aryans, Josef Paul Goebbels, German Minister of Propaganda in the Third Reich, predicted that American Indians would rather revolt against the United States than fight against a Germany which had promised to return their expropriated land to them.
Alaskan soldiers pose for the camera while in training at Hooper Bay, Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta. (Photo Credit: U.S. National Library of Medicine)
Native Americans were not fooled by this ploy. They displayed their loyalty proudly. Warriors responded in unprecedented numbers to America's call for volunteers immediately after Pearl Harbor and continued throughout the war years, because they clearly understood the need for defense of one's own land. Approximately 44,500 Indians served in the military during World War II. This represented more than ten percent of the approximate 400,000 member Native American population.
Participation in the war effort was not restricted to military volunteers alone. From 1942 to 1945, 40,000 Indians, both men and women, left their reservations for jobs in the defense industry. They contributed all means of support including tribal land resources such as oil and timber. Many Natives outside the military took a personal responsibility to assist in the war effort at home. Indians planted a total of 36,200 Victory Gardens to fulfill both their own needs and the government's obligations. Indians were key financial contributors to the war effort as well. By 1944, Native Americans purchased $50,000,000 in war bonds.
There were 400 Marine Code Talkers in World War II from the Navajo, Cherokee, Choctaw, Lakota, Meskwaki and Comanche tribes. Their efforts have been credited in saving countless lives. (U.S. Department of Defense)
World War II brought profound change to people across the globe, and Native Americans were no exception. Al Carroll notes this in his book Medicine Bags and Dog Tags: American Indian Veterans from Colonial Times to the Second Iraq War. He writes, "No other war brought such cultural and social change [to Native Americans] in such a short time." Veterans of the war came back as changed men and women. The warrior societies were reinvigorated and they began to have much in common with Anglo-American veterans groups, such as the American Legion. The bonds of war not only brought them together to re-instill traditions of their past, it gave them a renewed sense of purpose and identity.
When America re-instituted the draft, Native Americans responded with nearly one hundred percent registration rate of eligible men, setting the standard for Americans. Many did not wait to be drafted and promptly volunteered their service to the military. "Since when," one incredulous tribal member supposedly sneered, "has it been necessary for the Blackfeet to draw lots to fight?" Army officials maintained that if the entire population had enlisted in the same proportion as Indians, Selective Service would have been unnecessary.
Navajos in a U.S. Marine artillery regiment relay orders over a field radio in their native tongue. (Photo Credit: National Archives)
Gregory "Pappy" Boyington (Sioux) was a highly decorated combat pilot and Marine Corps fighter ace who flew for the legendary “Flying Tigers.” He received both the Medal of Honor and the Navy Cross. (Photo Credit: California Indian Education)
Many Native Hawaiians volunteered to serve in the armed forces. Benehakaka Kanahele (pictured above) received the Medal of Merit and Purple Heart.
Jake McNiece (Choctaw) applies ceremonial war paint to another paratrooper from the infamous Filthy 13, an elite demolition unit whose exploits inspired the novel and movie "The Dirty Dozen." (Photo Credit: Websta)
About 29,700 American Indians served in the Korean War. They fought alongside fellow Americans with honor. Three who also served during the Korean War received the Congressional Medal of Honor, the highest award given to a member of the U.S. military for valor in action against an enemy force. One of the Natives earning the award was Mitchell Red Cloud Jr., a Wisconsin Winnebago. Mitchell previously served in the Marine Corps in World War II. In Korea, he was a corporal in the U.S. Army when he sacrificed his life to buy time for his fellow soldiers. Refusing assistance he pulled himself to his feet and wrapping his arm around a tree continued his deadly fire again, until he was fatally wounded. This heroic act stopped the enemy from overrunning his company's position and gained time for reorganization and evacuation of the wounded. His actions fill the Ho-Chunk Nation with pride to this day.
In spite of being shot eight times, Mitchell Red Cloud, Jr. (Ho-Chunk) ordered his men to tie him to a tree so he could keep fighting, action for which he received the Medal of Honor. Red Cloud was the third of four Native Americans to be awarded the Medal of Honor in Korea (Photo Credit: Army.Mil)
Another Medal of Honor Recipient: Pfc. Charles George (Cherokee) unhesitatingly threw himself upon a grenade, saving the lives of his comrades who were embroiled in hand to hand combat. Shortly thereafter, he succumbed to his wounds. (U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs)
Master Sgt. Woodrow Wilson Keeble (Sisseton Wahpeton Oyate) was awarded the Medal of Honor posthumously for “conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity.” (Photo Credit: Army.Mil)
During the Vietnam War, approximately 42,000 Native Americans served in Southeast Asia either as advisors or as combat troops. Their contribution to the war effort is even more striking when you consider the following. Approximately one out of four eligible Native Americans served in the military forces in Vietnam, compared to one out of twelve in the general American population. Despite the decreased popularity of the war, Indians devoted themselves to the cause.
Believed to be the most decorated Native American soldier of the War, Billy Walkabout (Cherokee) received the Distinguished Service Cross, five Silver Stars, five Bronze Stars, and the Purple Heart. (Photo Credit: Best Teenagers Ever)
Walkabout in the 80s (Photo Credit: Best Teenagers Ever)
Ernie Wensaut (Potawatomi) checking his gear before patrol. (Photo Credit: Forest County Potawatomi)
Prairie Band Potawatomi member Larry Mitchell (center) served with Delta Company. He authored the book, “Potawatomi Tracks: The Ballad of Vietnam and Other Stories,” about his experiences and struggling with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. (Photo Credit: University of Arkansas at Little Rock)
Cherokee actor Wes Studi volunteered for military duty and fought with A Company. (Photo Credit: Wikipedia)
Glen Douglas (Lakes-Okanogan) served in World War II, the Korean War and the Vietnam War. (Photo Credit: Standing Rock Indian Preservation)
Desert Storm, Operation Iraqi Freedom and War against Terrorism
DAV life member Tyson Bahe (Navajo) served 5 years in the U.S. Army, deploying to Afghanistan twice as a cavalry scout. “The Native American culture is one of warriors. The elders pass down stories of warrior ancestors, and it is viewed as an honor to serve,” said Bahe. (Photo Credit: Army.Mil)
Staff Sgt. Conrad Begaye (Navajo) being awarded the Silver Star for his actions during an enemy ambush in the Nuristan Province of Afghanistan. (Photo Credit: Army.Mil)
Pfc. Lori Piestewa (Hopi) waiting for deployment to Iraq. Just five weeks later she passed into infamy as the first Native American woman killed in combat. Piestewa was a member of the Army's 507th Maintenance Company, which was ambushed in Nasiriyah. Three soldiers were killed, five taken prisoner, including Piestewa who died in captivity. (Photo Credit: Army.Mil)
Fellow captive Pfc. Jessica Lynch (pictured above). Lynch has repeatedly stated Piestewa was the true heroine of the ambush and fought like a commando. She named her daughter Dakota Ann in honor of her fallen comrade. (Photo Credit: Native American Church)
Among the many tributes nationwide, Arizona's state government renamed Squaw Peak in the Phoenix Mountains as Piestewa Peak, and a plaque bearing her name is located at White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico and Fort Bliss, Texas. Her death led to a rare prayer gathering between the Hopi and Navajo tribes, which have had a centuries-old rivalry. (Photo Credit: Army.Mil)
Soldiers taking part in the Native American Heritage Month celebration at Camp Victory, Iraq. (Photo Credit: Steven Clevenger, National Public Radio)
A woman on the Navajo reservation walks to welcome home veterans. (Photo Credit: Steven Clevenger, National Public Radio)
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ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Lt. Col. Brian J. Gilbertson (pictured above) authored “The Native American: Warriors in the U.S. Military” as a research paper while attending the Defense Technical Information Center as a student in the rank of Major.
DTIC has served the information needs of the Defense community for more than 70 years. Their mission is to aggregate and fuse science and technology data to deliver knowledge to develop the next generation of technologies to support our Warfighters. The Center manages the Information Analysis Centers, which provide technical analysis and data support to a diverse customer base.
Cover Design: Mark Martinez